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Tyndale Bulletin 41. 2 (1990) 276-289. The use of the old testament for christian ethics in 1 peter


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Tyndale Bulletin 41.2 (1990) 276-289.

THE USE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT FOR

CHRISTIAN ETHICS IN 1 PETER
Gene L. Green
How did the author of 1 Peter use the OT to develop Christian

ethics? In the quest for moral guidance for his readers he drew

from sections of OT teaching and did not quote or allude to this

teaching in isolation from its context. His selection of texts was

based upon the correlation between the situation of the people

of God in the OT and that of his readers. The teaching he

extrapolated from the OT was then developed in the author's

own terminology to show its relevance for the suffering

Christian communities in Asia Minor.1
I. The Readers and their Situation
There are few books in the NT which make more extensive use

of the OT than 1 Peter. This is rather surprising since the

Christian communities to which the author writes were not

composed of Jewish but rather Gentile converts.2 This is

evident from 4:3 where it is stated that the readers had done

the will of the Gentiles in the past. The list of vices Peter

enumerates includes idolatry and focuses on sins connected with

sexual and alcoholic excess. In 1:18 Peter reminds his readers

that they were redeemed from this 'vain' way of life inherited

from their forefathers. The word used is μάταιος which was

often employed in critiques of pagan cult idolatry, a background

which is probably reflected here.3 And 1:14 calls the readers

________________________

1 The most comprehensive examination of the hermeneutic of 1 Peter is W.L.

Schutter, Hermeneutic and Composition in 1 Peter (Tübingen, J.C.B. Mohr [Paul

Siebeckl 1989). Schutter, however, does not deal specifically with the question

of the use of the OT in the development of the ethical exhortation.



2 Longenecker classifies 1 Peter as a Jewish Christian tractate and states that

the NT authors made extensive appeal to the OT only when their audience was

primarily Jewish. Richard Longenecker, Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic

Period (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans 1975) 186ff, 210ff. But the audience which

1 Peter addressed was manifestly Gentile.



3 See W. C. van Unnik, 'The Critique of Paganism in 1 Peter 1:18',

Neotestamentica et Semitica, (ed.) E. Earle Ellis and Max Wilcox (Edinburgh,

T. T. Clark, 1969) 129-142; TDNT, 4.521f.

GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 277
not to be conformed to their former lustful life which they lived

in ignorance, undoubtedly a reference to their ignorance of the

true God.4 The descriptions of the reader's past state makes it

highly unlikely that the audience was in the main Jewish and

not Gentile.5 Yet despite their non-Jewish heritage, the

apostle draws on the OT at almost every turn in order to

interpret the working of God in the present time and to give

moral direction to his readers.

The adverse situation in which the readers find them-

selves heightens the need for a proper understanding of God's

work and the Christian's moral obligations.6 The Christian

communities were being persecuted by the society whose life-

style they had rejected (4:3, 4). The social pressure was intense

as the Christians were spoken evil of (2:12; 3:16), reviled (3:9),

insulted (3:16), blasphemed (4:4), and denounced (4:14). They

were in a vulnerable position where at any time they may be

called to give an account of their faith (3:15, 16).7 While

____________________________



4 Acts 3:17; 17:30; Eph. 4:18. L. Goppelt, Der Erste Petrusbrief (Göttingen,

Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1978) 117 states, 'Er will janicht die Formen des

geschichtlichen Lebens als solche ablehnen, sondern nur ihre Prägung durch

ἄγνοια, "Unwissenheit", and tineuitta, "Begehre". Beides ist nach at.-jüdisch-

urchristlicher Tradition Kennzeichen des Heidentums.'

5 Some have suggested that the churches were mixed Jewish and Gentile

communities. J.N.D. Kelly, A Commentary on the Epistles of Peter and of Jude

(London, A. & C. Black 1969); E. G. Selwyn, The First Epistle of St. Peter

(London, Macmillan 1947); Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction

(Leicester, Apollos 19904); Wayne Grudem, 1 Peter (Leicester, IVP 1988) 38; John

H. Elliott, A Home for the Homeless (Philadelphia, Fortress Press 1981) 65-67.

The internal evidence does not lead to this conclusion.

6 The most useful, though conflicting, discussions of the sociological situation of

the readers can be found in Goppelt, Erste Petrusbrief ; David L. Balch, Let



Wives Be Submissive (Chico, California, Scholars Press 1981); Idem ,

'Hellenization/Acculturation in 1 Peter', Perspectives on First Peter (ed.)

Charles H. Talbert (Macon, Georgia, Mercer University Press 1986) 79-101;

Elliott, Home for the Homeless ; Idem, '1 Peter, Its Situation and Strategy: A

Discussion with David Balch', Perspectives on First Peter (ed.) Charles H.

Talbert (Macon, Georgia, Mercer University Press 1986) 61-78.



7 The persecutions represented in 1 Peter were non-official but rather those that

were the common lot of believers in the early church. On the nature of the

persecutions see E.G. Selwyn, 'The Persecutions in 1 Peter' NTS 1 (1950) 39-50;

Kelly, Epistles of Peter; Ernest Best, 1 Peter (London, Oliphants 1971); James

Moffatt, Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament (Edinburgh, T. &

T. Clark 1918); W.C. van Unnik, 'Peter, First Letter of ' IBD 3.758-66; Idem,

'Christianity According to 1 Peter', ET 68 (1956) 79-83; C.F.D. Moule, 'The

Nature and Purpose of 1 Peter' NTS 3 (1957-58) 1-11.

278 TYNDALE BULLETIN 41.2 (1990)
verbal abuse and social rejection were the main forms of perse-

cution, in some cases the hostility may have taken the form of

physical attacks (2:20; 3:6; 4:1). The pressures on the

Christians were especially acute where close social relation-

ships existed, viz. slaves/masters, husbands/wives (2:18-3:6).

The crux of the matter was their reaction to this social

rejection. They had begun to be ashamed of their faith (4:6).8

They were tempted to retaliate, (3:9; cf. 2:23), and to conform to

a more socially acceptable lifestyle, (4:2, 3; 1:14). In fact, the

goal of their adversary, the devil, was to lead them into

apostasy, (5:8, 9).9 Peter combats this problem with the

theology and ethics of the epistle. And with this situation

ever present in his mind he makes extensive use of the OT, both

as it interprets the deed of God and elaborates his demand.


II. The Sectional Use of the Old Testament

One of the most fascinating aspects of 1 Peter is the way the

author interprets the OT in his attempt to address the reader's

social and moral crisis. The most extensive quotation of the OT

is found in 1 Peter 3:10-12, taken from Psalm 33:13-17(LXX):

ὁ γὰρ θέλων ζωὴν ἀγαπᾶν

καὶ ἰδεῖν ἡμέρας ἀγαθὰς

παυσάτω τὴν γλῶσσαν ἀπὸ κακοῦ

καὶ χείλη τοῦ μὴ λαλῆσαι δόλον

ἐκκλινάτω δὲ ἀπὸ κακοῦ καὶ ποιησάτω ἀγαθόν

ζητησάτω εἰρήνην καὶ διωξάτω αὐτήν

ὅτι ὀφθαλμοὶ κυρίου ἐπὶ δικαίους

καὶ ὦτα αὐτοῦ εἰς δέησιν αὐτῶν

προόσωπον δὲ κυρίου ἐπὶ ποιοῦντας κακά.

For the one who desires to love life

And to see good days

Let him stop his tongue from evil

And his lips from speaking deceit,

_____________________________

8 The present imperative with μή implies that the action is already in progress

and must be stopped. J.H. Moulton, A Grammar of New Testament Greek 4 vols.

(Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark 1906-1976) 1.122.

9 van Unnik, 'Christianity', 81; Kelly, Epistles of Peter 9, 209f; F.W. Beare, The

First Epistle of Peter (Oxford, BasilBlackwell, 1970) 204; Best, 1 Peter 174;

Alan M. Stibbs and Andrew F. Walls, The First Epistle General of Peter

(London, Tyndale Press 1959) 172; J. Ramsey Michaels, I Peter (Waco, Texas,

Word Books 1988) 299.

GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 279
Let him turn from evil and do good

Let him seek peace and pursue it.

Because the eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous

And his ears are open to their prayers

But the face of the Lord is against those who do evil.

Peter's hermeneutic is distinctly literalist here, yet he takes

the liberty to mould the text in order to apply it—assuming

that the quotation comes from the LXX. In verse 10a he has

eliminated the interrogative particle of the LXX as well as the

words ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος (is the man). Also, ἀγαπῶν (loving) has

been changed to an infinitive connected with ζωήν (life) and the

words γάρ (for) and καί (and) have been added. So while the

LXX reads, 'Who is the man who desires life, loving to see good

days,' 1 Peter says, 'For the one who desires to love life and to

see good days, etc.' There has been a subtle shift of meaning, on

which Stibbs comments:

What he here writes does not, as in the psalm, describe simply the

man who desires a long life and a good one. Rather it describes the

man who wishes to live a life which he can love and find worthwhile, a

life that is not marked by endless frustration and boredom.10

Peter also give the quotation a distinctively eschatological

turn. For him ζωή (life) is not simply long life and prosperity,

but 'eternal life', the life really worth loving (cf. 3.7) and the

'good days' seem in context to be 'the days of future glory'.11 In

addition to these changes, the third person imperative is

inserted in the place of the second person imperative. Finally,

the imprecatory clause at the end of Psalm 33:17 has been

omitted, perhaps due to Peter's redemptive concern for the

unbelievers, even those who persecute the Christian commu-

nities:12 All these alterations betray Peter's deliberate

attempt to interpret the OT ethical instruction in the light of

his reader's present situation. He draws out the meaning of the

_____________________________

10 Stibbs-Walls, Peter 131.

11 Beare, Peter 161. So Kelly, Epistles of Peter 138; Michaels, I Peter 180.

12 1 Peter speaks of the judgment of the unbelievers (4:5,170 and displays the

hope that their verbal abuse will be silenced (2:15). But Peter also shows

concern for the redemption of those who do not believe (3:15f, 1; and perhaps

2:12).


280 TYNDALE BULLETIN 41.2 (1990)
OT text for those who live in the present age of fulfilment. As

Manson has said, once the meaning of the OT text was found:

it becomes the clear duty to express it; and accurate reproduction of

the traditional wording of the Divine oracles took second place to

publication of what was held to be their essential meaning and

immediate application.13

But why is our author drawn to quote these particular verses

from Psalm 33 in his moral instruction? Why not draw from the

myriad of other OT texts whose teaching would be just as

applicable? A clue to the answer can be found in the 1919

article by W. Bornemann in which he argues that 1 Peter is a

baptismal address based on Psalm 33 of the LXX.14 We need not

accept his theory regarding the baptismal occasion of the docu-

ment, nor his argument for the role of Silvanus as its author.15

But Bornemann's conclusion that 1 Peter was composed with

repeated reference to the psalm cannot be dismissed.16 Not

only is the psalm quoted in 1 Peter 3:10-12, but 2:3 (εἰ

ἐγεύσκασθε ὅτι χρηστὸς ὁ κύριος, Since you have tasted that

the Lord is kind) is a modified quotation from Psalm 33:9

(γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε ὅτι χρηστὸς ὁ κύριος, Taste and see that

the Lord is kind).17 Apart from these quotations, other

____________________________



13 T.W. Manson, 'The Argument from Prophecy' JTS 46 (1945) 135ff.

14 W. Bornemann, 'Der erste Petrusbrief-eine Taufrede des Silvanus?' ZNW 19

(1919-20) 143-165.



15 See R.P. Martin, 'The Composition of 1 Peter in Recent Study' Vox Ev 1 (1962)

34ff; Best, 1Peter 20.



16 Schutter, Hermeneutic and Composition 44-49, questions Bornemann's

conclusion with regard to the influence of Psalm 33 on the teaching of the

epistle. He discusses each supposed parallel between the psalm and 1 Peter

and concludes that 'none of Bornemann's purported allusions to Ps. 34 are

sufficiently convincing so as to qualify more easily as evidence of dependence

than of biblically-patterned discourse, with the exception of several iterative

allusions that could hardly have been traced to the psalm unless its relevant

portion had been quoted in extenso (3:7, 13, 17 bis, 4:19).' (48) It cannot be denied

that taken individually most of the parallels between 1 Peter and Psalm 33

that Bornemann presents are not sufficiently strong to warrant his conclusion

concerning the influence of the Psalm on Peter's thought. But taken together

they show that there is something more than a 'tangential relationship to the

psalm' (ibid 47). As I will show, Peter tended to use sections of OT scripture

when he developed his ethics, and he exploited sections of text which

reflected a similar situation to that of his readers.

17 Peter adds the introductory particle εἰ and changes γεύσασθε into an

indicative. καὶ ἴδετε was omitted since it did not fit with his hunger imagery.

Bornemann suggests that καί ἴδετε may be echoed in 1:8, 'Petrusbrief' 147.

GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 281


allusions to Psalm 33 appear in the epistle. For example,

Peter 2:4 (πρὸς ὅν προσερξόμενοι, Coming to Him) echoes

Psalm 33:6 (προσέλθατε πρὸς αὐτόν, Come to Him). Parallel

themes appear in both documents, such as of the blessing of God

(1 Pet. 1:3; Ps. 33:2), the affliction of the righteous (1 Pet.1:6;

2:19-21, 23; 3:17; 4:12, 15, 19; 5:10; Ps. 33:7, 18, 20), and their joy

through affliction (1 Pet. 1.6, 8; 4:13; Ps. 33:4). The fear of the

Lord is a common element (1 Pet. 1:17; 2:17, 18; 3:2; Ps. 33:8, 10)

as is the necessity of hope (1 Pet. 1:3, 13, 21; 3:5, 15; Ps. 33:9, 23).

Both the psalmist and the author of 1 Peter turn their eyes to

the salvation of the Lord, though of course the latter gives this

concept eschatological significance(1 Pet. 1:5, 10; 2:2; 3:211;

Ps. 33:5, 7, 8, 18, 20). In both God's people are called 'holy ones’

(1 Pet. 1:15; 2:9; 3:5; Ps. 33:10) and 'aliens' (1 Pet. 1:17; 2:11;

Ps. 33:5). These and other parallels of thought and vocabu-

lary19 show that Peter did not draw out only a few verses of the

psalm as the basis for his ethical instruction for the persecuted

communities of Asia Minor. Rather he took into account the

whole of its thought and teaching.

A comparison of the indicated occasion of the psalm

with that of 1 Peter is instructive. Psalm 33, according to the

title, was a psalm of David. It was said to be written at the

time when he 'changed his face', or disguised his sanity, by

acting like a madman before his persecutor, Abimelech, the

king of Gath.20 While it is true that the psalm itself 'shows no

real connection with the event described'21 the supposed

background is in accord with the sentiments of the psalm.

Psalm 33 is rich with the themes of the persecution of the

righteous and the deliverance of the Lord. Its emphasis is upon

the proper attitudes of the righteous through their affliction,

such as the fear of the Lord, humility, doing good and seeking

peace. This is exactly the type of situation Peter had to

address. He chose to draw from this psalm for it spoke

_______________________



18 3:21 may refer not only to eternal but temporal deliverance from hostile,

forces.


19 For a complete examination of the parallels see Bornemann, 'Petrusbrief'

147ff.


20 A.A. Anderson, Psalms (London, Oliphants 1972) 1. 268 suggests that

Abimelech was the Semitic name for the king of Gath, Achisch.



21 Ibid.
282 TYNDALE BULLETIN 41.2 (1990)
specifically concerning how the people of God were to live in a

hostile environment.

We are already familiar with this type of early

Christian exegesis form the seminal study of C.H. Dodd.22

Certain sections of the OT were employed to interpret the

Christ event and shape Christian theology.23 This method, I

believe, was drawn over into the field of ethics. A section of

the OT was used to interpret the situation of the Christian

community and to give direction to their moral life.

Psalm 33 is not the only OT section which Peter used.

Isaiah 8 is quoted in 1 Peter 2:8 (λίθος προσκόμματος καὶ

πέτρα σκανδάλου, A stone of stumbling and a rock to trip over)

and 3:14, 15 (τὸν δὲ φόβον αὐτῶν μὴ φοβηθῆτε μηδὲ

ταραχθῆτε, κύριον δὲ τὸν Χριστὸν ἁγιάσατε ἐν ταῖς

καρδίαις ὑμῶν, Do not be afraid of them neither be terrifed, but

reverence Christ as Lord in your hearts). This latter text is

taken from Isaiah 8:12b. Here again the text quoted seems to be

the LXX, with changes made by Peter in accordance with the

situation of the readers he addresses.24 But 1 Peter 2:8, which

is derived from Isaiah 8:14, does not appear to be a quotation

from the LXX but instead from the Hebrew text. This verse,

along the other 'stone' passages, made up one of the early testi-

monies used in first century Christian apologetics. With

repeated use in the church the Hebrew form became

standardized.25 These two texts from Isaiah 8 signal that our

author had this section of the prophet's message in mind when

____________________________

22 C.H. Dodd, According to the Scriptures (London, Nisbet 1952).

23 See also Barnabas Lindars, New Testament Apologetic (London, SCM 1961) 4.

24 αὐτῶν (their) is substituted for αυτοῦ (his), οὐ is eliminated and οὐδὲ μή it is

exchanged for μηδέ. "In the Hebrew original the prophet and his disciples are

warned not to share the fears of the populace ('fear ye not their fear') or count

holy what they count holy, but to regard the Lord of hosts as holy and fear

Him alone. The Greek translator seems to have misunderstood the first part of

the passage and, substituting 'fear of him' for 'their fear', to have taken it as

an exhortation to the citizens of Jerusalem not to be afraid of the king of

Assyria, Kelly, Epistles of Peter 141ff. Peter sues the LXX meaning, although

the change of enemies form the king of Assyria to the gentile populace causes

him to alter αὐτοῦ (his) to areal, (their). Peter also adds τὸν Χριστόν

(Christ), making the reference to the κύριον (Lord) explicitly christological.

25 Cf. Rom. 9:33. Discussions of the 'stone' passages can be found in Dodd,

Scriptures; Lindars, Apologetic; E. Earle Ellis, Paul's Use of the Old Testament

(Edinburgh and London, Oliver and Boyd 1957).

GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 283
he composed his epistle. Other allusions to the thought

contained there can also be traced. The disobedient are singled

out (1 Pet. 2:8; 3:1, 20; 4:17; Is. 8:11) and the ones who believe or

trust in God are those who are granted aid and deliverance

(1 Pet. 1:5, 7, 9, 21; 5:9; Is. 8:14). The temple imagery is present

in both passages (1 Pet. 2:4, 5, 9; Is. 8:14) and they both speak of

the judgment of the persecutors (1 Pet. 4:5, 17,18; Is. 8:9, 10).

Most importantly, this section in Isaiah gives instruction for

those who face overwhelming hostility and stresses the proper

attitudes and conduct that the people of God are to adopt in the

face of great conflict. The parallels between the situation of

the prophet and his disciples and that of the persecuted

Christians in Asia Minor leads Peter to make use of this section

of the OT in the development of his ethical teaching.

Other sections which Peter may have had in mind

when he composed the epistle are Psalm 117, Isaiah 28, 40, and

53. Of these four, only Isaiah 53 is particularly relevant to the

question of the use of the OT in the development of Christian

ethics. There can be no doubt that Isaiah 52:13-53:12 was used

as a whole by the early church to interpret the Christ event.26

Peter alludes to it extensively in the Haustafel section of this

epistle. In 1 Peter 2:21-25 there are at least five reference to

Isaiah 53 (vs. 9-1 Pet. 2:22; v. 7-1 Pet. 2:2327; vv. 12, 4, 5-1 Pet.

2:24; v. 6-1 Pet. 2:25). Peter freely quotes the Isaiah material

before him to interpret the ministry of the Lord and the current

troubles of his readers. The suffering servant is Jesus Christ and

the sheep are the Gentiles to whom the apostle writes. The

passage is well suited to the author's purpose for it speaks of

the persecution of the righteous, God's deliverance, and the

conduct of the righteous under persecution.

Peter's exegesis of this passage, however, is somewhat

different than that of the others hitherto discussed. There is

no direct ethical command in Isaiah 53 for the people of God.

The picture is of the Righteous One suffering for the un-

righteous many. Yet our author extrapolates the ethical impli-

cations of the prophecy along an imitatio pattern. The

Christian slaves are to follow in Christ's footprints since he

_______________________________



26 See Lindars, Apologetic, 77ff.

27 Not a quotation, but the Isaiah passage does seem to be in mind.

284 TYNDALE BULLETIN 41.2 (1990)


left them an example (ὑπογραμμός). This means non-

retaliation, even though one suffers while doing good (1 Pet.

2:22f.). This teaching is translated into general instruction for

the whole community in 3:9: μὴ ἀποδιδόντος κακὸν ἀντὶ κακοῦ

ἤ λοιδορίαν ἀντὶ λοιδορίας (Do not return evil for evil, or

insult for insult).

Thus far, all the sections from the OT which Peter

referred to have had to do with the persecution of the elect,

the proper conduct under persecution, and the vindication of

God. Our author drew out the correspondences between God's

saving history, past and present, and where such analogies did

exist he adopted the teaching of the OT to give moral

instruction for his readers.

Peter's teaching about Sarah and the holy women of

old (3:5, 6) betrays a similar methodology. They were subject to

their husbands, and Sarah herself called Abraham κύριος

(Lord) (Gn. 18:12). For our author this indicated her obedience

to her husband.28 To be sure, Peter does not concern himself

with the whole of Genesis 18, nor does that section speak of the

suffering of the righteous in any way. Yet Peter sees a relation-

ship between Sarah and the Christian women. The corres-

pondence in history between Sarah and these women is made

explicit by the statement, 'whose [that is, Sarah's] children

you have become', 3:6.29 Thus her behaviour is to be imitated

by these women, even those who have non Christian husbands

(3:1, 2). There is a relationship here between the people of God

in the past and in the present. This indicates that Peter is not

merely concerned with pulling out any seemingly relevant

material from the OT, but rather his primary interest is in the

correspondences between people and situations in the redemp-

tive plan of God. Where such correspondences exist, the OT

teaching is paradigmatic for Christian behaviour. The moral

implications of these correspondences are developed on an

__________________________



28 Perhaps there is a reflection here of rabbinic interpretation of Gn. 18:12. SB

3.764; Kelly, Epistles of Peter, 131; J.W.C. Wand, The General Epistles of St.



Peter and St. Jude (London, Methuen 1934) 91.

29 The punctuation of this verse is problematical. Does the author mean that by

virtue of their relationship with Sarah they are to act like her, or does he say

that be doing good and not fearing they become her children? See the UBS text.
GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 285
imitatio model, as well as by a literal application of OT moral

teaching to the readers of the epistle.

Another text which draws on the OT in the

development of Christian moral teaching is 1 Peter 1:16: διότι

γέγραπται [ὅτι] Ἅγιοι ἔσεσθε, ὅτι ἐγὼ ἅγίος (For it is

written, You shall be holy, because I am holy). This call to

holiness is the controlling imperative of the Holiness Code in

Leviticus, being repeated at various points in the teaching

(Lv. 11:44f.; 19:2; 20:7, 26). Peter's wording is closest to

Leviticus 19:2 and we may assume again that he is quoting from

the LXX. This observation is confirmed by the fact that both

Peter and Leviticus 19:2 follow the call to holiness with

instruction concerning the proper response to parental authority

(Lv. 19:3; 1 Pet. 1:17). Part of holiness is to fear one's parents,

whether the parent is human or divine (cf. 1 Pet. 1:3, 23; 2:2).

Once again Peter has a section of OT teaching in mind, albeit a

small section. But what correspondence is there, if any,

between this text in Leviticus and the situation of the readers

of the epistle? Leviticus 19:2a indicates that the call to

holiness was to be spoken in the gathering of the sons of Israel.

The context in which this call was given was the exodus from

Egypt (Lv. 11:44f.) and the separation of Israel from the

Gentiles (Lv. 20:26). According to Peter, the Christian

community is the new Israel, the people of God (1 Pet. 2:9, 10).

They have embarked on an exodus, not out of society (as the

Qumran sectaries) but out of the immorality of paganism.30 As

the call to holiness controls the teaching for those who

embarked on the exodus from Egypt, so the same call is applied

to those who are the new people of God, separated by the

redemption of Christ from immorality.

The OT quotation in this instance is signaled by the

words διότι γέγραπται (For it is written). The scripture says

they should be holy, therefore they must be holy. The text

itself is authoritative for the Christian communities in so far

as they are themselves the people of God. The correlation

___________________________



30 L.Goppelt, Theology of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, Eerdmans 1981-

82) 2. 165f. On the exodus imagery in 1 Peter see also F.L. Cross, 1 Peter: A



Paschal Liturgy (London, Mowbray 1954) 24-27; R.E. Nixon, The Exodus in the

New Testament (London, Tyndale Press 1963) 27f.
286 TYNDALE BULLETIN 41.2 (1990)
between the history of the people of God, old and new, gives

the context in which this imperative from scripture is applied

to their present situation.

Another place where Peter appeals to the OT to give

form and motive to his ethical teaching is 1 Peter 5:5b: [ὁ] θεὸς

ὑπερηφάνοις ἀντιτάσσεσται, ταπεινοῖς δὲ δίδωσιν χάριν,

(God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble). The

quotation is from Proverbs 3:34 which became common stock in

the paraenetic teaching of the early church (Jas. 4:6; Mt. 23:12).

Yet in 1 Peter there is another allusion to this chapter in

Proverbs which indicates that the author drew directly from

its teaching (Pr. 3:25 is reflected in 1 Pet. 3:6b).31 Due to the

epigrammatic nature of the proverbs we should not expect to

find the correspondences in this case between persons and

history. This has been the case with other OT texts which the

author has used in the development of his teaching.

To summarize, Peter's use of the OT in the development

of Christian ethics is based upon the correspondences which

occur in God's saving history. In 1 Peter the past activity of God

among his people is linked organically with his present

activity among the new people of God. As Kelly says, 'it is one

and the same God [who] is at work in history, bringing the same

purpose to ever fuller realization in the succession of personages

and events'.32 In so far as there are correlations between past

and present history, the imperative given to those in the past

becomes normative for the reader's present situation.


III. The Application of Old Testament Ethics
Peter's interpretation of the OT as a source for Christian ethics

is mostly of the literalist variety. Also, the theme of fulfil-

ment is prevalent in his use of the OT, as 1:10-12 indicates.

This is one of the clearest statements of the pesher type of

interpretation. But when it comes to the application of the OT

texts to the reader's present moral crisis, the author uses a

technique akin to midrashic exegesis. The OT text is cited and

____________________________



31 Selwyn, First Epistle 408-10 suggests other parallels, none of which are

convincing.



32 Kelly, Epistles of Peter 161. See also Oscar Cullmann, Salvation in History

(ET, London, SCM 1967) 134; Longenecker, Biblical Exegesis 94f.


GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 287
a commentary is developed upon it. We will examine briefly

two examples.

In 1 Peter 3:10-12 the OT quotation of Psalm 33 centres

on three points of moral instruction: 1) Restraint of the tongue

(vs. 10b); 2) doing good while turning from evil (vs. 11a); 3)

seeking peace (vs. 11b). These three points are developed in

the ethical teaching, even being linked with other OT

material. The restraint of the tongue is a characteristic of the

suffering Christ. He had no guile in his mouth and did not

retaliate (1 Pet. 2:22, 23). This point is signaled in the author's

citation of Isaiah 53:9, with 'guile' (δόλος) being a common

element in this passage and in the Psalm 33 quotation. This

teaching may be reflected in 3:9 where the thought is taken a

step further (3:9 is primarily a translation into the imperative

of the attitude of Christ referred to in 2:23). Not only are they

to have no guile and to refrain from retaliation, but they are to

bless. In 2:1 the readers are told to put off all guile and evil

speaking. Perhaps the teaching of the psalm appears again in

3:15f where the readers are instructed to have a response for

everyone who asks them for an account of their hope, but in

meekness and fear.

Doing good while turning from evil is the second point

of the psalm (1 Pet. 3:11a). The call to 'do good' is a central

concept in the ethics of 1 Peter (2:12, 14, 15, 20; 3:6, 13, 16, 17;

4:19). Elliott has rightly suggested that 'It is not unlikely that

Peter's formulations, formations, and compounds to express the

idea of well-doing are adaptations of the thetical statement

which was quoted in altered form in 3:11, namely ψ 33:15.'33

Finally, the psalm's exhortation to seek peace and

pursue it (1 Pet. 3:11b) is developed through out the epistle in

the author's teaching concerning how they are to deal with

non-Christians, especially those who oppose them. Sub-

mission, non-retaliation, a meek reply, doing good even to the

evil are all approaches calculated to make for peace.

____________________________

33 J.H. Elliott, The Elect and the Holy (Leiden, E.J. Brill 1966) 181. On the

meaning of "good works" in 1 Peter see W.D. van Unnik, 'The Teaching of Good

Works in 1 Peter', NTS 1(1954-55) 92-110; Idem, 'A Classical Parallel to 1 Peter

ii. 14', NTS 2 (1955-56) 198-202; Bruce W. Winter, 'The Public Honouring of

Christian Benefactors, Romans 13:3-4 and 1 Peter 2:14-15', JSNT 34 (1988)

87-103.
288 TYNDALE BULLETIN 41.2 (1990)


Although εἰρήνη (peace) does not again appear in an ethical

context in the epistle, there is an over-riding conviction that

the Christians are to do things that make for peace.34

The methodology of the author seems to have been to

take the teaching of Psalm 33 and develop it fairly extensively

by incorporating it into the very fabric of his moral instruction.

Another passage in which a similar technique is used is

1:16, the call to holiness. The OT passage has been translated

into Peter's own language in 1:15: ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὸν καλέσαντα

ὑμᾶς ἅγιον καὶ αὐτοὶ ἅγιοι ἐν πάση ἀναστροφῇ γενήθητε

(But like the Holy One who called you is holy, even you be

holy in all your manner of life). Surprisingly, there are no

other imperatives in the epistle which call them to be ἅγιοι

(holy).35 And the idea of the imitation of God does not

explicitly reappear in any other passage. Yet it appears that

this passage is one of the principle imperatives of the epistle.

Instead of repeating the language of the imperative, he has

translated its thought into forms which are directly applicable

to the reader's situation. In 1:15 Peter says they are called to a

holy ἀναστροφή (lifestyle). The concept of the Christian

ἀναστροφή in other places in 1 Peter is connected with the

words καλή (noble) (2:11) and ἀγαθή (good) (3:16), and is

equivalent to 'doing good' (3:16, 17) and 'good works' (2:12).

The call to holiness is expounded in the repeated exhortation to

do good in all situations. Similarly, the imitation of God is

developed with reference to the imitation of the activity of

Christ (2:21ff).36 As C. H. Dodd said:

The New Testament idea of the imitation of Christ is a way of making

explicit what kinds of divine activity should be imitated by men, and

how, and why, and in what circumstances. . . To follow in His steps is to

have before us a truly human example, but it is also to have the divine

pattern made comprehensible and imitable. Hence, the imitation of

___________________________

34 See B.W. Winter, 'Seek the welfare of the city": Social Ethics according to 1

Peter', Themelios 13 (1988) 91-94.



35 3.2 however, speaks of the Christian wives' ἁγνὴν ἀγαστροφήν (pure way of

life). The imperative in 3.15, κύριον δὲ τὸν Χριστὸν ἁγιάσατε, is best

interpreted as meaning they are to 'revere' Christ or 'acknowledge Him as

holy' (Mt. 6.9; Is. 19.23; Ez. 20.41; Ecclus. 26.4). Best, 1 Peter 133; Beare, Peter

164; Stibbs—Walls, Peter 135; Selwyn, First Epistle 192; Kelly, Epistles of Peter

142; Michaels, 1 Peter 187. Cf. TDNT 1. 112.



36 3.18 may reflect the imitatio idea as well.

GREEN: OT and Christian Ethics in 1 Peter 289


Christ, being the imitation of God Himself so far as God can be a

model to His creatures, becomes a mode of absolute ethics.37

Christ's life is the perfect pattern for the rejected community of

how to imitate God in their afflictions.


IV. Conclusion
Out of this study a few basic points concerning Peter's use of the

OT in the development of Christian ethics have emerged.

First, he considered the adverse situation and the moral crisis

of his readers. Second, he appealed to sections of the OT which

for the most part reflected analogous situations in the life of

the ancient people of God. Third, in light of the corres-

pondences drawn between God's saving history in the past and

present the ethical teaching of the OT was adopted. The OT

teaching is normative for the Christian communities since they

stand in an organic relationship with the OT people of God.

Fourth, this material was then developed in the author's own

terminology and thought, explaining more explicitly its appli-

cation for the readers' present situation. In this time of crisis,

the OT had a living, authoritative message for the people of

God.

___________________________



37 C.H. Dodd, Gospel and Law (Cambridge, CUP 1951) 41f.


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