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Rulers of the Americas


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Rulers of the Americas

Compiled by Brian Morales

Moralesb@paho.org

www.rulers.org
CANADA

*5 Feb 1841 Upper and Lower Canada (present Ontario and Quebec) united as Province of Canada

*1 Jul 1867 The British colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada are united as Dominion of Canada; other parts of British North America accede at later dates

*11 Dec 1931 Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to the British dominionsaf.1950 official use of the term "Dominion" is gradually abandoned



Prime ministers

1 Jul 1867 - 7 Nov 1873 Sir John A. Macdonald (1st time) LC (s.a.)

7 Nov 1873 - 17 Oct 1878 Alexander Mackenzie L (b. 1822 - d. 1892)

17 Oct 1878 - 6 Jun 1891 Sir John A. Macdonald (2nd time) LC (s.a.)

16 Jun 1891 - 5 Dec 1892 John Abbott (from 1892, Sir)LC (b. 1821 - d. 1893)

5 Dec 1892 - 12 Dec 1894 Sir John ThompsonLC (b. 1845 - d. 1894)

21 Dec 1894 - 1 May 1896 Mackenzie Bowell (95, Sir)LC (b. 1823 - d. 1917)

1 May 1896 - 11 Jul 1896 Sir Charles Tupper LC (b. 1821 - d. 1915)

11 Jul 1896 - 10 Oct 1911 Wilfrid Laurier (from 1897, Sir) L (b. 1841 - d. 1919)

10 Oct 1911 - 10 Jul 1920 Robert Laird Borden (1914, Sir)C (b. 1854 - d. 1937)

10 Jul 1920 - 29 Dec 1921 Arthur Meighen (1st time) C (b. 1874 - d. 1960)

29 Dec 1921 - 28 Jun 1926 W.L. Mackenzie King (1st time) L (b. 1874 - d. 1950)

28 Jun 1926 - 25 Sep 1926 Arthur Meighen (2nd time) C (s.a.)

25 Sep 1926 - 7 Aug 1930 W.L. Mackenzie King (2nd time) L (s.a.)

7 Aug 1930 - 23 Oct 1935 Richard Bedford Bennett C (b. 1870 - d. 1947)

23 Oct 1935 - 15 Nov 1948 W.L. Mackenzie King (3rd time) L (s.a.)

15 Nov 1948 - 21 Jun 1957 Louis Saint Laurent L (b. 1882 - d. 1973)

21 Jun 1957 - 22 Apr 1963 John G. Diefenbaker PC (b. 1895 - d. 1979)

22 Apr 1963 - 20 Apr 1968 Lester B. PearsonL (b. 1897 - d. 1972)

20 Apr 1968 - 4 Jun 1979 Pierre Elliott Trudeau(1st time) L (b. 1919 - d. 2000)

4 Jun 1979 - 3 Mar 1980 Joe Clark PC (b. 1939)

3 Mar 1980 - 30 Jun 1984 Pierre Elliott Trudeau (2nd time) L (s.a.)

30 Jun 1984 - 17 Sep 1984 John Turner L (b. 1929)

17 Sep 1984 - 25 Jun 1993 Brian Mulroney PC (b. 1939)

25 Jun 1993 - 4 Nov 1993 Kim Campbell (f)PC (b. 1947)

4 Nov 1993 -Jean Chrétien L (b. 1934)


UNITED STATES

Presidents¹

30 Apr 1789 - 4 Mar 1797 George Washington (b. 1732 - d. 1799)

4 Mar 1797 - 4 Mar 1801 John Adams Fed (b. 1735 - d. 1826)

4 Mar 1801 - 4 Mar 1809 Thomas Jefferson D-R (b. 1743 - d. 1826)

4 Mar 1809 - 4 Mar 1817 James Madison D-R (b. 1751 - d. 1836)

4 Mar 1817 - 4 Mar 1825 James Monroe D-R (b. 1758 - d. 1831)

4 Mar 1825 - 4 Mar 1829 John Quincy Adams D-R (b. 1767 - d. 1848)

4 Mar 1829 - 4 Mar 1837 Andrew Jackson Dem (b. 1767 - d. 1845)

4 Mar 1837 - 4 Mar 1841 Martin Van Buren Dem (b. 1782 - d. 1862)

4 Mar 1841 - 4 Apr 1841 William Henry Harrison Whg (b. 1773 - d. 1841)

4 Apr 1841 - 4 Mar 1845 John Tyler Whg (b. 1790 - d. 1862)

4 Mar 1845 - 4 Mar 1849 James K. Polk Dem (b. 1795 - d. 1849)

4 Mar 1849 - 9 Jul 1850 Zachary Taylor Whg (b. 1784 - d. 1850)

9 Jul 1850 - 4 Mar 1853 Millard Fillmore Whg (b. 1800 - d. 1874)

4 Mar 1853 - 4 Mar 1857 Franklin Pierce Dem (b. 1804 - d. 1869)

4 Mar 1857 - 4 Mar 1861 James Buchanan Dem (b. 1791 - d. 1868)

4 Mar 1861 - 15 Apr 1865 Abraham Lincoln Rep (b. 1809 - d. 1865)

15 Apr 1865 - 4 Mar 1869 Andrew Johnson Dem (b. 1808 - d. 1875)

4 Mar 1869 - 4 Mar 1877 Ulysses S. Grant Rep (b. 1822 - d. 1885)

4 Mar 1877 - 4 Mar 1881 Rutherford B. Hayes Rep (b. 1822 - d. 1893)

4 Mar 1881 - 19 Sep 1881 James A. Garfield Rep (b. 1831 - d. 1881)

19 Sep 1881 - 4 Mar 1885 Chester A. Arthur Rep (b. 1830 - d. 1886)

4 Mar 1885 - 4 Mar 1889 Grover Cleveland (1st time) Dem (b. 1837 - d. 1908)

4 Mar 1889 - 4 Mar 1893 Benjamin Harrison Rep (b. 1833 - d. 1901)

4 Mar 1893 - 4 Mar 1897 Grover Cleveland (2nd time) Dem (s.a.)

4 Mar 1897 - 14 Sep 1901 William McKinley Rep (b. 1843 - d. 1901)

14 Sep 1901 - 4 Mar 1909 Theodore Roosevelt Rep (b. 1858 - d. 1919)

4 Mar 1909 - 4 Mar 1913 William Howard Taft Rep (b. 1857 - d. 1930)

4 Mar 1913 - 4 Mar 1921 Woodrow Wilson Dem (b. 1856 - d. 1924)

4 Mar 1921 - 2 Aug 1923 Warren G. Harding Rep (b. 1865 - d. 1923)

2 Aug 1923 - 4 Mar 1929 Calvin Coolidge Rep (b. 1872 - d. 1933)

4 Mar 1929 - 4 Mar 1933 Herbert Hoover Rep (b. 1874 - d. 1964)

4 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt Dem (b. 1882 - d. 1945)

12 Apr 1945 - 20 Jan 1953 Harry S. Truman Dem (b. 1884 - d. 1972)

20 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower Rep (b. 1890 - d. 1969)

20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963 John F. Kennedy Dem (b. 1917 - d. 1963)

22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson Dem (b. 1908 - d. 1973)

20 Jan 1969 - 9 Aug 1974 Richard M. Nixon Rep (b. 1913 - d. 1994)

9 Aug 1974 - 20 Jan 1977 Gerald R. Ford Rep (b. 1913)

20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981 Jimmy Carter Dem (b. 1924)

20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989 Ronald Reagan Rep (b. 1911)

20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993 George Bush Rep (b. 1924)

20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001 Bill Clinton Dem (b. 1946)

20 Jan 2001 - George W. Bush Rep (b. 1946)




Mexico


6 Nov 1813 independence of "Northern America" declared by the Congress

of Anáhuac (insurrection against Spain)

24 Oct 1814 constitution of Mexican America promulgated

15 Dec 1815 insurrection extinguished

28 Sep 1821 independence (Mexican Empire)

29 Mar 1823 Mexico

10 Oct 1824 United Mexican States

1 Jan 1837 Mexican Republic

22 Aug 1846 United Mexican States

20 Apr 1853 Mexican Republic

16 Sep 1857 United Mexican States

31 May 1863 foreign intervention

22 Jun 1863 Mexico

11 Jul 1863 Mexican Empire

15 May 1867 United Mexican States
Generalissimo in charge of the Executive

6 Nov 1813 - 24 Oct 1814 José María Morelos y Pavón (b. 1765 - d. 1815)



Presidents of the Supreme Government

24 Oct 1814 - 24 Feb 1815 José María Liceaga (b. 1780? - d. 1818)

24 Feb 1815 - 5 Nov 1815 José María Morelos y Pavón (s.a.)

5 Nov 1815 - 13 Nov 1815 vacant

13 Nov 1815 - 15 Dec 1815 Ignacio Alas (b. 1780 - d. 1843)

President of the Regency of the Empire

28 Sep 1821 - 21 May 1822 Agustín de Iturbide (b. 1783 - d. 1824)

(initially styled President of the Provisional Governing

Junta)


Emperor

- Iturbide dynasty -

21 May 1822 - 29 Mar 1823 Agustín (s.a.)



President of the Constituent Congress

29 Mar 1823 - 31 Mar 1823 José Mariano Marín (b. 1782 - d. 1863)



Presidents of the Supreme Executive Power

31 Mar 1823 - 30 Apr 1823 Pedro Celestino Negrete (b. 1777 - d. 1846)

1 May 1823 - 31 May 1823 José Mariano de Michelena

(1st time) (b. 1772 - d. 1852)

1 Jun 1823 - 30 Jun 1823 Nicolás Bravo (1st time) (b. 1786 - d. 1854)

1 Jul 1823 - 31 Jul 1823 José Mariano de Michelena

(2nd time) (s.a.)

1 Aug 1823 - 31 Aug 1823 José Miguel Domínguez (1st time) (b. 1756 - d. 1830)

1 Sep 1823 - 30 Sep 1823 Vicente Ramón Guerrero (1st time) (b. 1783 - d. 1831)

1 Oct 1823 - 31 Oct 1823 José Mariano de Michelena

(3rd time) (s.a.)

1 Nov 1823 - 30 Nov 1823 José Miguel Domínguez (2nd time) (s.a.)

1 Dec 1823 - 8 Dec 1823 Vicente Ramón Guerrero (2nd time) (s.a.)

8 Dec 1823 - 31 Dec 1823 José Miguel Domínguez (3rd time) (s.a.)

1 Jan 1824 - 31 Jan 1824 José Mariano de Michelena

(4th time) (s.a.)

1 Feb 1824 - 29 Feb 1824 José Miguel Domínguez (4th time) (s.a.)

1 Mar 1824 - 31 Mar 1824 Vicente Ramón Guerrero (3rd time) (s.a.)

1 Apr 1824 - 30 Apr 1824 Nicolás Bravo (2nd time) (s.a.)

1 May 1824 - 31 May 1824 José Miguel Domínguez (5th time) (s.a.)

1 Jun 1824 - 30 Jun 1824 Vicente Ramón Guerrero (4th time) (s.a.)

1 Jul 1824 - 31 Jul 1824 Guadalupe Victoria (1st time) (b. 1786 - d. 1843)

1 Aug 1824 - 31 Aug 1824 Nicolás Bravo (3rd time) (s.a.)

1 Sep 1824 - 30 Sep 1824 José Miguel Domínguez (6th time) (s.a.)

1 Oct 1824 - 10 Oct 1824 Guadalupe Victoria (2nd time) (s.a.)

Presidents

10 Oct 1824 - 1 Apr 1829 Guadalupe Victoria (s.a.)

1 Apr 1829 - 23 Dec 1829 Vicente Ramón Guerrero (s.a.)

23 Dec 1829 - 1 Jan 1830 Pedro Vélez (b. 1787 - d. 1848)

+ Lucas Alamán (b. 1792 - d. 1853)

+ Luis de Quintanar (b. 1772 - d. 1837)

(acting)

1 Jan 1830 - 24 Dec 1832 Anastasio Bustamante (1st time) (b. 1780 - d. 1853)

(acting)

24 Dec 1832 - 1 Apr 1833 Manuel Gómez Pedraza (b. 1789 - d. 1851)

1 Apr 1833 - 16 May 1833 Valentín Gómez Farías (1st time) (b. 1781 - d. 1858)

(acting)


16 May 1833 - 27 Feb 1837 Antonio López de Santa Anna

(1st time) (b. 1794 - d. 1876)

27 Feb 1837 - 19 Apr 1837 José Justo Corro (interim) (b. 1794 - d. 1864)

19 Apr 1837 - 10 Oct 1841 Anastasio Bustamante (2nd time) (s.a.)

10 Oct 1841 - 1 Feb 1844 Antonio López de Santa Anna

(2nd time) (provisional) (s.a.)

1 Feb 1844 - 4 Jun 1844 Valentín Canalizo (acting) (b. 1794 - d. 1850)

4 Jun 1844 - 24 May 1845 Antonio López de Santa Anna

(3rd time) (s.a.)

(removed de facto 6 Dec 1844)

24 May 1845 - 30 Dec 1845 José Joaquín de Herrera (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1854)

(interim to 16 Sep 1845)

30 Dec 1845 - 2 Jan 1846 Gabriel Valencia (interim) (b. 1799 - d. 1848)

2 Jan 1846 - 4 Aug 1846 Mariano Paredes (b. 1797 - d. 1849)

(General-in-Chief to 4 Jan 1846; interim to 13 Jun 1846)

5 Aug 1846 - 23 Dec 1846 José Mariano de Salas (1st time) (b. 1797 - d. 1867)

(acting)

23 Dec 1846 - 21 Mar 1847 Valentín Gómez Farías (2nd time) (s.a.)

(acting)

21 Mar 1847 - 16 Sep 1847 Antonio López de Santa Anna

(4th time) (interim) (s.a.)

26 Sep 1847 - 13 Nov 1847 José Manuel de la Peña y Peña

(1st time) (interim) (b. 1789 - d. 1850)

13 Nov 1847 - 8 Jan 1848 Pedro María de Anaya (interim) (b. 1794 - d. 1854)

8 Jan 1848 - 3 Jun 1848 José Manuel de la Peña y Peña

(2nd time) (s.a.)

(provisional to 15 May 1848, then interim)

3 Jun 1848 - 15 Jan 1851 José Joaquín de Herrera (2nd time) (s.a.)

15 Jan 1851 - 6 Jan 1853 Mariano Arista (b. 1802 - d. 1855)

6 Jan 1853 - 8 Feb 1853 Juan Bautista Ceballos (interim) (b. 1811 - d. 1859)

8 Feb 1853 - 20 Apr 1853 Manuel María Lombardini (acting) (b. 1802 - d. 1853)

20 Apr 1853 - 12 Aug 1855 Antonio López de Santa Anna

(5rd time) (s.a.)

13 Aug 1855 - 15 Aug 1855 Rómulo Díaz de la Vega (1st time) (b. 1804 - d. 1877)

(General-in-Chief)

15 Aug 1855 - 12 Sep 1855 Martín Carrera (interim) (b. 1806 - d. 1871)

12 Sep 1855 - 15 Nov 1855 Rómulo Díaz de la Vega (2nd time) (s.a.)

(Governor of District of Mexico and Commander-in-Chief)

4 Oct 1855 - 15 Sep 1856 Juan Álvarez (b. 1790 - d. 1867)

(interim; in rebellion as General-in-Chief from 14 Mar

1855)

15 Sep 1856 - 21 Jan 1858 Ignacio Comonfort (b. 1812 - d. 1863)



(substitute to 1 Dec 1857; provisional from 19 Dec 1857)

21 Jan 1858 - 23 Dec 1858 Félix María Zuloaga (1st time) (b. 1813 - d. 1898)

(General-in-Chief to 23 Jan 1858; then interim)

23 Dec 1858 - 21 Jan 1859 Manuel Robles Pezuela (acting) (b. 1817 - d. 1862)

21 Jan 1859 - 23 Jan 1859 José Mariano de Salas (2nd time) (s.a.)

(acting)


23 Jan 1859 Miguel Miramón (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1867)

(interim)

23 Jan 1859 - 13 Aug 1860 Félix María Zuloaga (2nd time) (s.a.)

(acting)


13 Aug 1860 - 15 Aug 1860 José Ignacio Pavón (acting) (b. 1791 - d. 1866)

15 Aug 1860 - 24 Dec 1860 Miguel Miramón (2nd time) (s.a.)

(interim)

28 Dec 1860 - 23 Mar 1862 Félix María Zuloaga (3rd time) (s.a.)

(interim)

21 Apr 1862 - 12 Jan 1863 Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (b. 1803 - d. 1869)

(Supreme Chief of the Nation)

22 Jun 1863 - 25 Jun 1863 Teodosio Lares (b. 1806 - d. 1870)

(President of the Superior Governing Junta)

25 Jun 1863 - 20 May 1864 Supreme Provisional Executive Power

(from 11 Jul 1863, Regency)

- Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (s.a.)

- Juan Bautista de Ormaechea (b. 1812 - d. 1884)

(to 19 Oct 1863)

- Pelagio Antonio de Labastida (b. 1816 - d. 1891)

(19 Oct - 18 Nov 1863)

- José Mariano de Salas (s.a.)

Emperor

- Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty -

10 Apr 1864 - 15 May 1867 Maximiliano I (b. 1832 - d. 1867)



Presidents

15 May 1867 - 18 Jul 1872 Benito Juárez (b. 1806 - d. 1872)

(in opposition from 19 Jan 1858 [interim to 11 Jun 1861])

19 Jul 1872 - 21 Nov 1876 Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (b. c.1825 - d. 1889)

(interim to 30 Nov 1872)

21 Nov 1876 - 23 Nov 1876 José María Iglesias (b. 1823 - d. 1891)

(interim; with this title in revolt from 28 Oct 1876

and to 17 Jan 1877)

23 Nov 1876 - 30 Nov 1880 Porfirio Díaz (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1915)

(Chief of Armed Forces to 28 Nov 1876; interim

president 28 Nov 1876 - 5 May 1877)

1 Dec 1880 - 30 Nov 1884 Manuel González (b. 1833 - d. 1893)

1 Dec 1884 - 25 May 1911 Porfirio Díaz (2nd time) (s.a.)

25 May 1911 - 6 Nov 1911 Francisco León de la Barra (b. 1863 - d. 1939)

(interim)

6 Nov 1911 - 19 Feb 1913 Francisco I. Madero (b. 1873 - d. 1913)

19 Feb 1913 (hours) Pedro S. Lascuraín Paredes (b. 1858 - d. 1952)

(interim)

19 Feb 1913 - 15 Jul 1914 Victoriano Huerta (interim) (b. 1845 - d. 1916)

15 Jul 1914 - 13 Aug 1914 Francisco S. Carvajal (interim) (b. 1870 - d. 1932)

20 Aug 1914 - 31 Oct 1914 Venustiano Carranza (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. 1920)

(revolutionary commander)

31 Oct 1914 - 6 Nov 1914 Antonio I. Villarreal González (b. 1879 - d. 1944)

(president of Revolutionary Convention)

6 Nov 1914 - 16 Jan 1915 Eulalio Martín Gutiérrez Ortiz (b. 1881 - d. 1939)

(provisional; continued in rebellion to 2 Jun 1915)

16 Jan 1915 - 10 Jun 1915 Roque González Garza (acting) (b. 1885 - d. 1962)

10 Jun 1915 - 10 Oct 1915 Francisco Lagos Cházaro (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1932)

Oct 1915 - 21 May 1920 Venustiano Carranza (2nd time) (s.a.)

(revolutionary commander to 1 May 1917)

24 May 1920 - 30 Nov 1920 Adolfo de la Huerta (b. 1881 - d. 1955)

(revolutionary commander to 1 Jun 1920, then interim

president)

1 Dec 1920 - 30 Nov 1924 Álvaro Obregón (b. 1880 - d. 1928)

1 Dec 1924 - 30 Nov 1928 Plutarco Elías Calles (b. 1877 - d. 1945)

1 Dec 1928 - 5 Feb 1930 Emilio Portes Gil (interim) PRI (b. 1890 - d. 1978)

5 Feb 1930 - 4 Sep 1932 Pascual Ortiz Rubio PRI (b. 1877 - d. 1963)

4 Sep 1932 - 30 Nov 1934 Abelardo L. Rodríguez PRI (b. 1889 - d. 1967)

(substitute)

1 Dec 1934 - 30 Nov 1940 Lázaro Cárdenas PRI (b. 1895 - d. 1970)

1 Dec 1940 - 30 Nov 1946 Manuel Ávila Camacho PRI (b. 1897 - d. 1955)

1 Dec 1946 - 30 Nov 1952 Miguel Alemán PRI (b. 1900 - d. 1983)

1 Dec 1952 - 30 Nov 1958 Adolfo Ruíz Cortines PRI (b. 1890 - d. 1973)

1 Dec 1958 - 30 Nov 1964 Adolfo López Mateos PRI (b. 1910 - d. 1969)

1 Dec 1964 - 30 Nov 1970 Gustavo Díaz Ordaz PRI (b. 1911 - d. 1979)

1 Dec 1970 - 30 Nov 1976 Luis Echeverría Álvarez PRI (b. 1922)

1 Dec 1976 - 30 Nov 1982 José López Portillo PRI (b. 1920)

1 Dec 1982 - 30 Nov 1988 Miguel de la Madrid PRI (b. 1934)

1 Dec 1988 - 30 Nov 1994 Carlos Salinas de Gortari PRI (b. 1948)

1 Dec 1994 - 30 Nov 2000 Ernesto Zedillo PRI (b. 1951)



1 Dec 2000 - Vicente Fox Quesada PAN (b. 1942)






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