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Present perfect simple present perfect – form


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ENGLISH I

PERFECT TENSES




PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

1. Present perfect – form

Este tiempo se compone de dos elementos: la forma correspondiente del verbo auxiliar to have (present tense), más el participio de pasado del verbo principal, que se forma en los verbos regulares: base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. Para los verbos irregulares, ver Table of irregular verbs



Affirmative







Subject

to have

past participle

She

has

visited

Negative







Subject

to have + not

past participle

She

hasn't

visited

Interrogative







to have

subject

past participle

Has

she

visited..?

Interrogative negative

to have + not

subject

past participle

Hasn't

she

visited...?

Example: to walk, present perfect

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have walked

I haven't walked

Have I walked?

You have walked

You haven't walked

Have you walked?

He, she, it has walked

He, she, it hasn't walked

Has he, she, it walked

We have walked

We haven't walked

Have we walked?

You have walked

You haven't walked

Have you walked?

They have walked

They haven't walked

Have they walked?

2. Present perfect, function

Este tiempo suele indicar una unión entre el presente y el pasado. El tiempo de la acción es antes de ahora pero sin especificar (before now but not specified), y estamos más interesados en el resultado que en la acción.



CUIDADO: hay un tiempo verbal en español, el pretérito perfecto, que corresponde en forma a este tiempo, pero NO siempre corresponde en su uso al Present perfect en Inglés.

El “present perfect” se usa para describir:

1. Una acción o situación que empezó en el pasado y continua en el presente.

Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)

Debes tener en cuenta que esta frase en español sería:

Vivo en Bristol desde 1984”, es decir, usamos el presente de indicativo.


2. Una acción llevada a cabo durante un periodo que no ha acabado todavía.

Example: She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isn't over yet.)



3. Una acción repetida durante un periodo de tiempo sin especificar entre el pasado y el tiempo actual. Example: We have visited Portugal several times.

4. Una acción que se completó en un pasado muy reciente. Suele ir acompañado de 'just'. Example: I have just finished my work.

5. Una acción en la que el tiempo no es importante.

Example: He has read 'War and Peace'. (The result of his reading is important)

CUIDADO: Cuando queremos dar o preguntar detalles de: when, where, who, usamos el pasado simple. Example: He read 'War and Peace' last week.

Examples:



1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present.
a. They haven't lived here for years.
b. She has worked in the bank for five years.
c. We have had the same car for ten years.
d. Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. When the time period referred to has not finished.
a. I have worked hard this week.
b. It has rained a lot this year.
c. We haven't seen her today.

3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now.
a. They have seen that film six times.
b. It has happened several times already.
c. She has visited them frequently.
d. We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just).
a. Have you just finished work?
b. I have just eaten.
c. We have just seen her.
d. Has he just left?

5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known.
a. Someone has eaten my soup!
b. Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?
c. She's studied Japanese, Russian and English.

PRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yet

Los adverbios ever / never expresan la idea de un tiempo indefinido antes de ahora (before now) e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin?



'Ever' se usa

a. in questions. e.g. (en preguntas)


Have you ever been to England?
Has she
ever met the Prime Minister?

b. in negative questions e.g. (en preguntas negativas)


Haven't they ever been to Europe?
Haven't you
ever eaten Chinese food?

c. and in negative statements using the pattern nothing.......ever, nobody.......ever e.g. (en frases negativas usando la estructura …)


Nobody
has ever said that to me before.
Nothing like this has ever happened to us.

d. 'Ever' is also used with 'The first time.... e.g. (también se usa con la expresión: Es la 1ª vez que …)


It's the first time (that) I've ever eaten snails.
This is the first time I've ever been to England.

'Never' means at no time before now, and is the same as not ... ever: (significa en ningún tiempo antes de ahora)
I have never visited Berlin

CUIDADO: No se deben usar en la misma frase never y not

I haven't never been to Italy.
I have never been to Italy.

Posición: 'Ever' y 'never' se colocan siempre antes del verbo principal (before the main verb) (past participle).

Already y yet:

Already se refiere a una acción que ha ocurrido en un tiempo sin especificar antes del tiempo actual. Sugiere que no hay necesidad de una repetición,e.g.
a. I've already drunk three coffees this morning. (and you're offering me another one!)
b. Don't write to John, I've already done it.

Se usa también en preguntas:


a. Have you already written to John?
b. Has she finished her homework already?

Posición: already se suele colocar delante del verbo principal (past participle) o al final de la frase (menos habitual):
a. I have already been to Tokyo.
b. I have been to Tokyo already.

yet se usa en frases negativas y en preguntas, y quiere decir: todavía (en negativas) y ya (en preguntas). e.g.
a. Have you met Judy yet?
b. I haven't visited the Tate Gallery yet.
c. Has he arrived yet?
d. They haven't eaten yet.

Posición: Yet se coloca al final de la frase.

PRESENT PERFECT OR SIMPLE PAST?

Siempre se debe usar present perfect cuando el tiempo no es importante o no se especifica.

Siempre se debe usar simple past cuando se preguntan o se especifican los detalles sobre el momento en que ocurrió la acción.

Comparemos:

Present perfect

Simple past

I have lived in Lyon.

I lived in Lyon in 1989.

They have eaten Thai food.

They ate Thai food last night.

Have you seen 'Othello'?.

Where did you see 'Othello'?

We have been to Ireland.

When did you go to Ireland?

Hay también una diferencia de actitud (attitude) que es a menudo más importante que el factor tiempo.

"What did you do at school today?" es una pregunta sobre actividades, y considera el colegio acabado ya en ese día.

"What have you done at school today?" es una pregunta sobre resultados –“enséñame”,- y considera el momento de hablar como una continuación del día de colegio.

PRESENT PERFECT + for, since

Usando el present perfect, podemos definir un periodo de tiempo antes del actual considerando su duración, con for + a period of time, considerando su punto inicial, con since + a point in time.



For + a period of time:

for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours.
I have worked here for five years.

Since + a point in time:

since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,


since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o'clock.
I have worked here since 1990.

 

More examples:



present perfect with for:

a. She has lived here for twenty years.


b. We have taught at this school for a long time.
c. Alice has been married for three months.
d. They have been at the hotel for a week.

present perfect with since:

a. She has lived here since 1980.


b. We have taught at this school since 1965.
c. Alice has been married since March 2nd.
d. They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.

CUIDADO:

1. For and since se pueden usar también con past perfect.


2. Since solo se puede usar con perfect tenses, for también se puede usar con simple past.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

1. Present perfect continuous, form
Present perfect continuous se compone de dos elementos: (a) the present perfect of the verb 'to be' (have/has been), (b) the present participle of the main verb (base+ing).

Subject

has/have been

base+ing

She

has been

swimming



Affirmative




She has been / She's been

running

Negative




She hasn't been

running

Interrogative




Has she been

running?

Interrogative negative




Hasn't she been

running?

Example: to live, present perfect continuous

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have been living

I haven't been living

Have I been living?

You have been living

You haven't been living

Have you been living?

He, she, it has been living

He hasn't been living

Has she been living?

We have been living

We haven't been living

Have we been living?

You have been living

You haven't been living

Have you been living?

They have been living

They haven't been living

Have they been living?

2. Present perfect continuous, function
Present perfect continuous se refiere a un tiempo sin especificar que transcurre entre un tiempo anterior al momento actual y el propio momento actual. El hablante piensa en algo que empezó pero que quizás no acabó en ese periodo de tiempo. Está interesado en el proceso así como en el resultado, y este proceso puede que todavía continúe, o puede que acabe de finalizar.

Examples:



1. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present.

a. She has been waiting for you all day (=and she's still waiting now).

b. I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (=and I still haven't finished it).

c. They have been travelling since last October (=and they're not home yet).



2. Actions that have just finished, but we are interested in the results:

a. She has been cooking since last night (=and the food on the table looks delicious).

b. It's been raining (= and the streets are still wet).

c. Someone's been eating my chips (= half of them have gone).

Nota:


Verbos que no suelen ir en tiempos continuos
Con verbos que no se usan en tiempos continuos, se usa el present perfect simple. :

  • I've wanted to visit China for years.

  • She's known Robert since she was a child.

  • I've hated that music since I first heard it.

  • I've heard a lot about you recently.

  • We've understood everything we've heard this morning.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS?

La diferencia de uso entre ambos tiempos no es muy significativa. Hay muchas ocasiones en que los dos tiempos se pueden usar de forma intercambiable. Fíjate en este cuadro:



Present Perfect Simple

Present Perfect Continuous

Acentúa el resultado de una acción

Acentúa la duración o el transcurso de una acción. La acción en sí misma.




Enfatiza las veces que ha ocurrido una acción (how many)

Enfatiza cuánto tiempo ha durado la acción. (how long)

Acción que transcurre desde el pasado al presente.

La acción está acabada pero influye en el presente

I have done my homework (indico que ya lo he finalizado)

I have been doing my homework (indico la actividad que he estado desarrollando; no informo de si he terminado mis deberes o no)

This evening I’ve written two letters to my parents. (indica el número de cartas)

My daughter has been writing e-mails to her friends for hours. (indica la duración y enfatiza la acción en sí misma)

PAST PERFECT

1. Past perfect, form
Este tiempo se compone de dos partes:

the past tense of the verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb.

Subject

had

past participle

We

had

decided...



Affirmative







She

had

given.

Negative

 

 

We

hadn't

asked.

Interrogative

 

 

Had

they

arrived?

Interrogative negative

Hadn't

you

finished?

Example: to decide, Past perfect

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I had decided

I hadn't decided

Had I decided?

You had decided

You hadn't decided

Had you decided?

He, she, it had decided

He hadn't decided

Had she decided?

We had decided

We hadn't decided

Had we decided?

You had decided

You hadn't decided

Had you decided?

They had decided

They hadn't decided

Had they decided?

2. Past perfect, function
Refiere a un tiempo anterior al pasado. Se usa para dejar claro que una acción ocurrió antes que otra en el pasado. No importa qué acción se menciona antes, el tiempo aclara qué acción ocurrió primero.

En estos ejemplos, la acción A (Event A) es la primera acción, y la B (Event B) es la segunda o la última acción:



a.

John had gone out

when I arrived in the office.

Event A

Event B

b.

I had saved my document

before the computer crashed.

Event A

Event B

c.

When they arrived

we had already started cooking

Event B

Event A

d.

He was very tired

because he hadn't slept well.

Event B

Event A

Past perfect + just
'Just' se usa con el past perfect para referirse a una acción que ocurrió sólo un momento antes que la otra acción en el pasado.

a. The train had just left when I arrived at the station.


b. She had just left the room when the police arrived.
c. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.

EXERCISES
1.- Write the correct form of the verb. Use the present perfect simple.
Jack (be) 1 … my friend for over 20 years. We (know) 2 …. each other since we were children. Recently, he and his family (move) 3 ….. to a house on the same street as me, and now our children play together almost every day.

For the last ten years, Jack and I (play) 4 …. for the same hockey team every Saturday. Jack is a better player than I am, but in the last few months he (have) 5 …… some trouble with his left knee, and he (find) 6 ..... it hard to play a full game. He (see) 7 … the doctor several times about his knee, but the doctor doesn't know what is causing his pain. Jack (decide) 8 ….. to take a break from hockey for a while, so that his knee can recover. It's going to be lonely on the team without him!



2.- Write the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use: present perfect simple, simple past or past perfect.

Principio del formulario


Final del formulario

Principio del formulario

Have you ever had malaria? If you have, the chances are that you (get) 1 …. the disease in a hot country. Malaria is most common in tropical countries, especially those with wet and humid climates, where the mosquitoes which carry the disease can flourish. However, recently, malaria (become) 2 ….. more common in Canada. According to a recent report, over 1000 people (contract) 3 …. the disease in Canada in 1997, and the number (rise) 4 …. every year since 1994. This is an alarming trend.

Why is the incidence of malaria rising here? The answer is travel. More and more Canadians travel abroad every year, and some of them catch malaria. However, when a Toronto woman (become) 5 … sick last year, her doctor (discover)6 …. that she (never travel) 7 …. abroad in her life. She must have been bitten by a mosquito which (get) 8 …. the disease from another sick Canadian.


3.- Use the correct tense: past perfect or simple past.
1. First, we ate at the cafeteria. Then, we went to class.
After we … at the cafeteria, we … to class.

2. First, John made himself a sandwich. Then, he poured some tea.


After John … himself a sandwich, he … some tea.

3. First, Jim plugged in the headphones. Then, he played a CD.


Before he … a CD, Jim … in the headphones.

4. First, Sophia fed the cat. Then, she called her mother.


Sophia … her mother after she … the cat.

5. First, Marie did her homework. Then, she watched TV.


Marie … her homework before she … TV.

4.- Put the verbs into the correct tense: present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.

  1. I (play) … football for five years.

  2. My team (win / only) … two matches so far.

  3. The others (be / always) … better.

  4. Are we not there yet? We (walk) … for hours.

  5. But we (cover / only) … an area of five miles so far.

  6. I (finish/just) … my homework.

  7. I (work) …. on this essay since two o'clock.

  8. Jane (go out) …. with Bob for seven years.

  9. Martin (date) … three girls this week.

  10. How long (wait / you) … for us?

  11. I (know) … her all these years and I have never been bored with her company.

  12. I (plant) … three new trees in my garden this morning.

  13. Scientists (do) …. research on that illness but still (not find) …. anything yet.

  14. I (use) … this car for the past 10 years, it (run) … about 200.000 Km.



5.- Complete the sentences. Look at the example.
It's June now. Nick has a motorbike. He bought it last September.
He's had it for nine months.
1. Rose knows Kate. She met her at Christmas.

............................................... (know)


2. They share a flat. They found it in March.

............................................... (live)


3. Tom's father has a new car. He got it in February.

............................................... (have)


4. Tom was four when his parents bought their house.

He's 23 now, and they still live there.

................................................ (live)
5. Tom works in a bank. He started there the year before last.

................................................ (work)


6.- Write sentences. Look at the example.

Rose is in London. She went there last week.



She has been there since last week.
1. Nick's at the garage. He went there at nine o'clock.

....................................


2. Kate is at the College of Music. Her classes started at 9.30.

....................................


3. Tom's in Birmingham. He went there on Tuesday.

....................................


4. Nick's parents are in Paris. They went there last June.

....................................


5. Rose's parents live in Oxford. They moved there in 1972.

....................................


7.- Make questions with how long ... ?
Example: Jill is in London. How long has she been in London?
1. I know George. How long ..................... him?
2. Mike and Judy are in Brazil. How long ................... ?
3. Diana is learning English. ............................... ?
4. My brother lives in Germany. ............................. ?
5. It is raining. ........................................... ?
6. Bill is a teacher. ....................................... ?
7. I know Margaret. ......................................... ?
8. I have a motor-bike. ..................................... ?
8.- Complete these conversations.
Example: A: ever (go) to Germany? Have you ever been to Germany?

B: Yes. Yes, I have.

A: where (go)? Where did you go?

B: (go) to the Black Forest I went to the Black Forest.


1. A: ever (read) an English book? ............................

B: Yes.


A: When (read)

B: (read) last year


2. A: ever (go) to a pop concert? ........................

B: Yes.


A: Who (see)?

B: (see) Prince


3. A: ever (use) a computer?

B: Yes.


A: When (use) it?

B: (use) one last week.


4. A: ever (eat) octopus?

B: Yes.


A: What (be) it like?

B: It (be) delicious!


Reading
Read this interview
Journalist: How long have you been interested in snowboarding?

Susan: I've been snowboarding for the last three years. I love it. Have you ever tried it?

Journalist: No. Is it difficult?

Susan: If you have surfed before, or if you have used a skateboard, then you won’t have a problem with this at all. It is exhilarating. A little balance is all you need. Picture yourself gliding down a mountain without the years of training a skier needs, just rolling with the board when you fall.

Journalist: It sounds a bit dangerous. Can anyone learn it?

Susan: Yes, and it’s a lot of fun. Believe me, there is no better high. And it is legal! To be honest, it’s about breaking your own fear barriers, pushing yourself to the limit and getting away from city life. Once you have tried snowboarding, you’ll never look at skis again.

Journalist: Where do people go snowboarding?

Susan: Well, take Chamonix, for example. It’s an international centre –people from all over come here for the challenge. I used to mess about on ramps at home in England and then took up snowboarding. I've been coming here ever since. But you can go snowboarding all over Europe.

Journalist: Have you bought all the equipment?

Susan: The equipment? Yes, I have a snowboard and the waterproof clothing. It is available in the shops, or you can rent it at the resort you snowboard in.



Answer these questions:

  1. What kind of activities are good preparation to learn snowboarding?

  2. What is the main difference between snowboarding and skiing?

  3. When she says: “…it’s a lot of fun. There is no better high. … legal”. What does she mean?

  4. What kind of equipment do they need?


Find words or phrases in the text that mean:

  1. making you excited and very cheerful

  2. stability

  3. obstructions, obstacles

  4. slopes

  5. kit, gear

  6. permeable


What do you think?

Do you know other sports which may have something in common with snowboarding?

Which ones?

Are they so dangerous and exciting?

Why do you think people take up these sports?


Check your answers
Principio del formulario
1.- Use the present perfect simple
1- has been 2- have known 3- have moved 4- have played

5- has had 6- has found 7- has seen 8- has decided


2.- Use: present perfect simple, simple past or past perfect.
1- got 2- has become 3- contracted 4- has risen

5- became 6- discovered 7- had never travelled 8- got


3.- Use past perfect or simple past
1. After we had eaten at the cafeteria, we went to class.

2. After John had made himself a sandwich, he poured some tea.

3. Before he played a CD, Jim had plugged in the headphones.

4. Sophia called her mother after she had fed the cat.

5. Marie had done her homework before she watched TV.
4.- Use present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.
1. have been playing 2. has only won

3. have always been 4. have been walking

5. have only covered 6. have just finished

7. have been working 8. has been going out

9. has dated 10. have you been waiting

11. have known 12. have planted

13. have been doing/haven’t found 14. have been using / has run
5.- Complete the sentences
1. Rose has known her since Christmas

2. They have shared a flat since March.

3. Tom's father has had a new car since February.

4. Tom has lived in the same house since he was four.

5. Tom has worked in a bank for two years.
6.- Write sentences
1. He has been there since nice o’clock
2. She has been there since 9.30.
3. He has been there since Tuesday
4. They have been there since last June
5. They have lived there since 1972

7.- Make questions with how long ... ?
1. How long have you known him?
2. How long have they been there?
3. Diana is learning English. How long has she been learning English?
4. My brother lives in Germany. How long has he been living there?
5. It is raining. How long has it been raining?
6. Bill is a teacher. How long has he been a teacher?
7. I know Margaret. How long have you known her?
8. I have a motor-bike. How long have you had it?
8.- Complete these conversations.
1. A: Have you ever read an English book?

B: Yes, I have

A: When did you read it?

B: I read it last year


2. A: Have you ever been to a pop concert?

B: Yes, I have

A: Who did you see?

B: I saw Bruce Springsteen


3. A: Have you ever used a computer?

B: Yes, I have.

A: When did you used it?

B: I used one last week.


4. A: Have you ever eaten octopus?

B: Yes, I have

A: What was it like?

B: It was delicious!




Reading
Questions:

  1. Surfing and skateboarding

  2. Skiing needs a lot of previous training.

  3. She is comparing snowboarding to drugs.

  4. A special board and waterproof clothes

Words:


  1. exhilarating

  2. balance

  3. barriers

  4. ramps

  5. equipment

  6. waterproof



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