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Natural & human history timeline


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Partition Poland, Russia Prussia &Austria take 1/2pop.+1/3land 1772

Boston Tea Party 1773; Louis XVI 1774-92

“Quebec Act“allows,French speech&laws, gives OH Valley to Canada 1774

Martial Law in MA (Intolerable Acts) 1774; 1stContinental Congr. 1775

Amer. Rev.Lexington+Concord1775-83; James Watt Steam Engine 1776

US Declaration of Indepence; one fifth of the US pop. are slaves 1776



Americans take Montreal & besiege Quebec 1776

Articles of Confederation; states rights; no federal tax 1776

1st American settlers in Illinois; 1st bicycle in France 1779



Voltaire, foremost proponent of Enlightenment, dies 1694-1778

British surrender@ Yorktown 1781; 1stBalloon Flight in France 1782



Treaty of Paris ends American Revolution 1783

Northwest Ordinance survey; Constitution 1785-1787

Federalist Papers 1785-1787; French Revolution 1789-1794



Bill of Rights 1791; George Washington US President 1789-1797

Hamilton 4 Reports;Gas Lights in Europe Streets 1790; Meth. Ch. 1791

Vancouver expl. Pacif.coast 1792-1794; Eli Whitney -cotton gin 1793

2nd Partition of Poland Russ. &Pruss. take >1/2 land +1/3 pop. 1793

3rd+last Partition Poland, gone 123yrs; Louis XVIexecuted 1795

Battle of Fallen Timbers / Jay's treaty; Pinckney’s Treaty 1795

John Adams US Pres. 1797-1801; Alien+Sedition Acts 1798


19th CENTURY French Revolution begins the Era of Nationalism

Romantic Period begins in Music, Poetry & Literature

Napoleon’s reign 1799-1814; Volta pile battery 1800

Romantic period in Poetry begins 1800; Alexander I Russia 1801- 1825



T.Jefferson US Pres. 1801-09; Fort Dearborn;LouisianaPurchase 1803

Beethoven‘s Eroica ; England steam locomotive 1803

Napoleon crowns himself Emperor 1804

Btl.Trafalgar,Engl.defs.Fr.+Sp.navy1805; Napoleonends.Holy.R.Emp.1806



Fulton steamboat 1807; Britain & America abolish slave trade 1807

Aluminum disc. from Bauxite & named by Sir Humphrey Davey 1808

Js.Madison US pres.1809-1817; paddlewheeler Ohio river 1811

Geo.IVes.GIII,regent 1811;+king of Hannover1814;Warof1812 1812-14

Ft. Dearborn massacre; Napoleon invades Russia 1812

Potato now suitable food Germany, Scotland, Italy, Switz.Holland 1813

Americans burn York (Toronto) Canada 1813

Napoleon def.@Leipzig &@Vittoria byWellington1813; Nap.abdicates 1814

Louis XV 1814-1824; Jackson def. British at Battle of New Orleans 1814

Napoleon’s 100 days and Battle of Waterloo 1815

Brit.Empire=1/4 of world land1815-1914;year without a summer 1816

“Indian Boundaryline trty.“ Chicago 1816; J.Monroe US pres. 1817-1825



IL a state 1818; US-Canada border defined W.of Lake of Th.Woods 1818

border 49thparal.to Pacific; U.S.gains FL frm. Spain-Adams Onis Tty.1819

Oerstedt disc.Electromagnetism1820;GeorgeIV-Hann.es.ofGIII 1820-30

Music Classical period Ends & Romantic period begins ca1820

Irish potato famine 1821-1823; Mexican Independence 1821

Greek War of independ. vs Turks 1821-28; Monroe Doctrine 1823

Charles X1824-1830;Bering proves Asia& N. Amer. sep. by water 1825

Niépce makes first permanent photographic image 1826

Erie Canal opened 1825; Nicholas I of Russia 1825-1855

1stRailway England 1825; John Q. Adams US Pres. 1825-1829



English Catholics emancipated 1829; A.Jackson US Pres. 1829 -1837

Greek indep. from Ottomans 1830; 1strailways Engl. & Germany 1830s

William IV Hann.3rd s.of gIII 1830-37; Louis-Philippe 1830-1848

Faraday induces electric current in a wire using a Magnet 1831

BlackHawk War /Ft.Dearborn regarrisoned 1832; 1ststreet RRY NYC 1832



Chicago incorp.Engl.abol.slavery 1833; Johannes Brahms 1833 -1897

Camille Saint-Saens 1835-1921; M.Van Buren USPres. 1837-41



Victoria Hannover gd.of GIII 1837-1901; farm steam Engines 1840s

1st English 1penny postal service / 1st trans-Atlantic Steamer 1840

Wm. H. Harrison US Pres 3/41-4/41; J.Tyler US Pres. 1841 -1845

Aroostok War/ME-Canada border1842; Wm James philosopher1842 -1910

Telegraph invented; “The Bab“announces“ (precursor Baha‘i faith) 1844

J.K.Polk US Pres.1845-49; Irish potato famine–ca1million die 1846-1850



Mexican War (1846-48) U.S. wins and gains land in parts of

CA, AZ, NM, NV, UT WY & CO 1848

Illinois-Michigan Canal opens 1848; CA Gold rush 1849

Russia helps Austria defeat Hungarian Revolt 1849
Zachary Taylor US Pres. 1849 -1850; M. Fillmore US Pres. 1850-1853

1st Store-bought clothes, England 1850

Little Ice Age“ ends - gradual global warming begins ca1850

Fr.Pierce US Pres.1853-1857;1strailway toMiss.Riv.@ Rock Island IL1854

CrimeanWar/Brit.def.Russ.1854-1856; 1stMS riv.Rry.bridge, Rock Is.1856

Bessemer blast furnace making steel 1856; Buchanan US Pres. 1857-61

Darwin’s “Origin of Species“publ.1859; 1stoil well; 1ststreet RRYChi. 1859

US Civil War 1860-1865; 1stUS Transcont;Telegraph 1861

A.Lincoln US Pres.Assas.1861-65; Emancipation edict in Russia 1861

Conscription Act ; Gettysburg 1863; US Emancipation Proclamation 1863

Baha’Ullah declares himself God’s messenger, Baha‘i faith founded 1863

New York City Draft Riots 1863; AndrewJohnson US Pres. 1865-69

Maxwell unifies electricity&magnetism1865;U.S.Fenians inv.Canada 1866

Brit.N.Amer.Act= Canada Dominion; US.trys buy Ruperts Land/Brit. 1867

U.S.purchases Alaska1867; Hungary, “dual monarchy” from Austria 1867

U.S. transcontinental RRY 1869; U.S. Grant US Pres. 1869-1877



Pius IX reverses church position onfetus animatus“ (fetal soul) 1869

Italian army drives The Papacy from Rome into the Vatican 1870

Franco Prussian War 1870; Canadian N.W.M.P.“Mounties“ 1873

Eads Bridge, St.Louis MO 1874; Winston Churchill 1874-1965

A. Graham Bell, telephone 1876; R.B.Hayes US.Pres. 1877-81

Incandescent Electric light Edison 1879; Electric Street Car NYC 1880



J.A.Garfield US pres.assas. 1881; C.ArthurUS Pres. 1881 -85

Gr. Brit. occup. Egypt 1882; G.Cleveland US.Pres. 1885 -89

Rubber tires1886; 1st Kodak Camera 1888; B.Harrison USPres.1889 -93

Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890; Duryea auto; gas tractor 1892

G.Cleveland US Pres 1893-97; Becquerel discov.Radioactivity 1896

1st long.dist.electric pwr.transmission Niagara NY, Nicola Tesla 1896



Thomson discov.Electron 1897; W.McKinley US pres.assas.1897 -1901

Spanish American War -U.S. wins & annexes Hawaii,

takes Puerto Rico, Guam, Philipines & Cuba 1898


20th CENTURY____________________________ _

Boxer Rebellion in China; Australia becomes a Commonwealth 1900



Max Planck‘s Quantum Theory 1900; Freud‘s theory of Dreams 1900

Trans-Atlantic Radio signal 1901; Theodore Roosevelt US Pres. 1901-09



Edw.VII Saxe-Coburg Goth es.of Edw.V 1901-10; Boer War ends 1902

silent movies; Wright Bros. 1stflight @ Kittyhawk NC. US 1903

U.S. controls Panama Canal1903; NYCsubway; trans-SiberianRRY 1904

Russo-Japanese War 1904; Einstein Spec.Relativity, e=mc2 1905

Einstein proves matter’s atomic nature1905;Russian Revolution 1905-17

Einstein, quanta in light & atoms 1907; plastic invented 1907

Model T Ford 1908; Oil discovered Iraq 1908; Peary 1st to N.Pole 1909

W.H.Taft US Pres. 1909-13; Geo.V Saxe-Coburg 2nds. of EdVII 1910 -36

Rutherford hypothesizes nucleus; 1stbomb dropped from Airplane 1911

W.WilsonUSpres.1913-21;W.W.I1914-18;Fords 1st MassProduced 1914



Einstein,Gen.Relativity1915; Communist Russian Oct. Revolution1917

Tzar Nicholas II b1868+family killed by Bolsheviks @ Ekaterinberg 1918

V.I.Lenin 1918-24; Rutherford discov.Proton; League of Nations 1919

1st US commercial radio station; US women’s suffrage 1920

Schroedinger Equation, Quantum Theory emerges in modern form 1920

Arab anti-Jewish riots Palestine 1920-21; US Prohibition 1920-33

W.G. Harding US Pres. 1921-23; Egypt independent 1922

Kemal Ataturk westernizes Turkish dress, government & alphabet 1923

“talkies“ movie 1923; C. Coolidge US.Pres.1923-29; 1st TV Transm. 1925

Lindbergh flies Atlantic solo; Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 1927

Jos.Stalin 1927-53; 1stall-electronic television system; Penicillin 1928

World Depression 1929-33; H.Hoover US Pres. 1929-33

England ends gold standard; Pauli hypothesizes the neutrino 1930

1stair conditioning; Chadwick discovers Neutron 1932

Von Neumann develops foundation for Quantum Mechanics 1932

Technicolor movies 1932; F.D. Roosevelt US Pres. 1933-45

Mao‘s long march1934-35; Adolph Hitler1935-45;US.SocialSecurity 1935

Spanish Civil War 1936-39; BBC TV Service 1936

EDW.VIIIWinds. s.ofGV abdicates1936;GeoVIWinds.2nds.ofGV 1936-52

Street & Stevenson discover muon 1936-37; Krystallnacht Germ. 1938



Germany Occupies Czech Sudetenland Oct.1938

W.W.II1939-45;Germ.&Russia inv.Poland9/39; Btl.ofBritain 7-9/1940

Fermi, Beta decay 1940; Germany inv. Russia 22 June 1941

1stUS commercial TV station 1941; Japan bombs Pearl Harbor Dec.7 ‘41

Enrico Fermi produces 1st controlled nuclear chain reaction 1942

1st long-range ballistic missle Germany 1942



ENIAC 1st large programmable computer @ U Penn 1943-46

Von Neumann develops theory of Games & economic behavior 1944

D.Day Jun/44; German surrender May/1945; microwave oven 1945

Von Neumann develops 1st computer architecture; UN founded 1945

H.S.Truman US pres.1945-53; USA atom-bombs /Japan Aug 6 1945



Japan surrenders9/45; MarshallPlan1945;Dead Sea scrolls discov. 1947

G.Gamow predicts Big Bang; Transistor; State of Israel 1948



Berlin Blockade 1948/49; Germany divided into East & West G. 1949
1storgan transplant;Credit Cards1950;Korean War1950-53; Color TV 1951

Germany agrees to pay holocaust reparations 1952

Elizabeth II Windsor d.G VI 1952; Polio vaccine 1952; DNA discov.1953

D.D. Eisenhower US Pres.1953-1961; segregation illegal in US 1954

Hungarian Revolution; velcro; Interstate Hwys; TV remote control 1956

1st computer hard drive 1956; Vietnam War 1956-75



European Union founded; Sputnik 1stsatel. ; US Civil Rights Act 1957

Mao’s “Great leap forward“; microchip; credit cards 1958

Castro rules Cuba 1959; laser invented 1960; Berlin Wall 1961 -89

Cuban missle crisis 1962; J.F.Kennedy USPres.assasinated 1961 -63

L.B. Johnson USPres. 1963-69; Saudis outlaw slavery 1964

US Civil Rights Act; Gell-Mann discovers quark 1964; Vatican II 1965

UK.ends hanging; Radiation detected from 400,000yr aft. Big Bang 1965

US troops to Vietnam 1965; Martin L.King assassination1966

Cath.Index Librorum Prohibitorum(Book censorship since1559)ends 1966



Israeli 6-day war; 1stheart transplant; Portable calculator 1967

1stMoon walk 1969; Aswan dam; String Theory “born” 1970

R.Nixon US Pres.resigned 1969-74; VCRs; UK decimal currency 1971

Watergate; pocket calculators; Common Market; Vietnam War ends 1973

World1stcellphone call1973;1stcomputer chip1974;G.FordUSPres.1974 -77

Microsoft corp. founded 1975; Perl discovers tau Lepton 1976

Apple I; MRI1977;J.CarterUSPres.1977-81;Russia inv.Afghanistan 1979

Rapid Global Warming begins; North Sea oil; 1stCompact Disk 1980

AIDS identified; IBM PC 1981; R.Reagan USPres. 1981-89

StringTheory proposed?–possib.unifying theory 1984;Maccomputer 1984



Ozone layer “hole“ discov. 1985; MS shows “Windows“ 1987

DNA 1st convicts criminals 1987; muon neutrino discovered 1988

USSR lvs.Afghanistan1988; Berlin wall falls; USSR lvs.E.Europe 1989

3 light neutrinos discovered (tau, electron, & muon) 1989

world wide web developed @ Cern, Switz. by Berners – Lee 1989

G.H.W.Bush USPres. 1989-93; Hubble space telescope 1990

USSR collapse; 1st Gulf War; 1st www page 1991

W.Clinton US Pres.1993-2001; Channel Tunnel; European Union 1994

1st DVD 1995; 11 European States (except UK) adopt Euro 1999


21st CENTURY_______________________________________

NYC World Trade Ctr. attacked 9/11/01; US invades Afghanistan 2002



Latin no longer used in UK legal documents 2002;US invades Iraq 2003

European Union = 23 states (8 more join) 2004

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