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Natural & human history timeline


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NATURAL & HUMAN HISTORY TIMELINE

Pauk K.Orsay Aug. 11, 2007



BLUE=WesternHemisphere; VIOLET=Brit.Isles; GREEN=Europe;

ORANGE=Russia; BROWN=Africa; PINK=Asia+Australia;

BLACK=worldwide+universal; RED=China; Blue-Gray=inanimate events;
13.7 BYA “Big Bang“ Our Universe Begins

(BYA = billion yrs. ago, MYA = million yrs ago)______________

electrons & protons 1st able to combine to form matter 13.4 BYA

galaxies 12.7 BYA; Milky Way Galaxy 10 BYA; Sun 4.6 BYA
4.5 -3.8 BYA (Earth forms cloud to solid, crust, oceans) HADEAN EON

Earth and meteorites 4.55 BYA; Moon 4.5 BYA

Late Heavy Bombardment Period“ Meteorites Earth+Moon 4-3.8 BYA


3.8 -2.5 BYA (oldest rocks, continents form) ARCHEAN EON

First evidence of tectonic plate movement (SW Greenland) 3.8 BYA

1stsea life / prokaryotes 3.6 BYA; 1stfossils 3.2-2.8 BYA

1st large continental shields 2.8-2.5 BYA
2,500-543 MYA(single cell,eukarya,fungi,animals) PROTEROZOIC EON

O2 catastrophy (photosynthesis makes O2); Plate Tectonics 2.5 BYA

eukaryote (mitochondria, nucleus c DNA) 2.5 BYA; algae 1.5 BYA

Rodinia breakup1.3-0.8BYA;Cryogenian “Snowball Earth“ 850-600 MYA
543 MYA to PRESENT(multicellular life) PHANEROZOIC EON

Metazoa (multicelled life); 1st Trilobites 600-250 MYA

Ediacarian Period. ‘soft bodied’marine fauna 600-540 MYA
540-240 MYA (Invertebrates, fish, tetrapods,reptiles) PALEOZOIC ERA

CAMBRIAN PERIOD (trilobites, brachiopods, molluscs) 540-505 MYA

Cambrian Explosion”(abrupt rise/multicelled organisms) 542-530 MYA



ORDOVICIAN PERIOD 505-438 MYA; 1st fish 540 MYA

1st vertebrate (fish fossil found in China) 530 MYA

1st(of 6)gr. EXTINCTIONS (Ordovician/Silurian)–cooling 463-433 MYA

SILURIAN PERIOD wingless insects, silverfish etc. 438-408 MYA

U.S.Great Lakes under tropic Seas 440-395 MYA; -warming 420 MYA

DEVONIAN PERIOD wingless insects, silverfish etc 408-360 MYA

2nd(of 6) gr. EXTINCTIONS (Late Devonian)–cause? 370-360 MYA

Plants with seeds; 1stland vertebrate 360 MYA

Europe & North America 1stcollide; 1st Amphibian 350 MYA

CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD, lush forest and swamplands 345-280 MYA

Building of Ozark-Ouachita-Appalachian Mountains 340 MYA



Pangea, “single supercontinent“ forms 310-250 MYA

Africa collides c N. America forming Pangea & Appalachian Mts 290 MYA



PERMIAN PERIOD 1st Reptile, spider, snail, cockroach 286-245 MYA

3rd(of6)gr.EXTINCTIONS“Great Dying”@ Permian/Triassic boundary

70% of sea life+95% of land life(?Volcano orAntarctic meteor) 251 MYA



Ural mountains form (final step in the formation of Pangea) 250 MYA
240-65MYA(dinosaurs,mammals,birds,floweringplants) MESOZOIC ERA

TRIASSIC PERIOD 245-208 MYA

4th(of6)EXTINCTIONS (end Triassic)warming&vulcanism 214-199 MYA

1st Mammal 210 MYA

JURASSIC PERIOD 208-144 MYA

Pangea breakup into Gondwanaland & Laurasia 200 MYA

CRETACEOUS PERIOD 144-66.4 MYA; 1stbird 150 MYA

Gondwanaland & Laurasia split into 7 continents 135 MYA

1stprimate 80 MYA;Europe/North America part+form Atlantic 70-45 MYA

South America separates from Africa 65 MYA

5th(of6)great EXTINCTIONS (Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary)

Yucatan meteor? ends Dinosaurs 65 MYA


65 MYA–present (grazing mammals, grass, apes) CENOZOIC ERA

TERTIARY PERIOD 66.4-1.6 MYA

Himalayan Mts. 60MYA; global warming 50 MYA; global cooling 45 MYA



India+Asia collide+form Himalayas 45 MYA

Africa+Europe collide+form Alps, Pyrennes & Carpathian Mts. 40 MYA



Hominoid (ape, chimp, Hominid) & Old World Monkeys split 30 MYA

North America splits from Greenland 16 MYA; Andes Mts. 15 MYA

Mediterranean Sea forms10MYA; Global cooling+drying Africa 8-6 MYA

Sahelanthropus tchadensis 6.5 MYA; Hominid/chimp, split 4.1 MYA

Australopithecus Afarensis “Lucy“ 3.9–3 MYA

Hominids split into Australopithecine and Homo lines 3-2.5 MYA

North & South America rejoined 3 MYA; 1st hominid-made fire 3 MYA

severe global cooling & drying 2.8 MYA



1ststone tools,‘Olduwan‘Africa 2.6-1.5 MYA
2.4 MYA (African Lower Paleolithic) Old Stone Age

Homo Habilis 2.3-1.44 MYA; Homo Rudolfensis 2.3-1.9 MYA

1st ‘Homo-made‘ Habitation Olduvai 2 MYA



1stHomo migration fromAfrica(No Australopithecines left in Africa)2 MYA

1.8 MYA-10 KYA 9-20Ice Ages,severe cooling,dryingPleistocene Epoch

Homo Ergaster 1.8-1.5 MYA; Homo Erectus 1.8 MYA-400 KYA

Homo Erectus 1st in Rep.of Georgia (oldest disc.outside Africa) 1.8 MYA

Homo in China, E.Asia 1.8 MYA

Homo Erectus -used Acheulean tools in Africa 1.5MYA-500 KYA

H. Antecessor in Spain (1st European, ?ancestor of Neanderthal) 1 MYA
800 -250 KYA Lower Paleolithic

H. Heidelbergensis ancestor to man &Neanderthal,Eur.&Asia ca800 KYA

Controlled fire Israel; human tools GrBr. (Pakefield site) 700 KYA

Acheulean tools used in N.Europe by H.Heidelbergensis 700-200 KYA

Homo Neanderthalensis from H.Heidelbergensis in Africa 500 KYA

Hand axes Francec.500 KYA–300KYA; Controlled fire Britanny c.400 KYA

English Channel 1stcut by sudden overflow frm N.Sea lake 450-200 KYA

Homo Sapiens arises from H.Heidelbergensis in Africa 400 KYA

Illinoisan ‘Great‘ Glaciation (almost to Ohio River) 330 KYA

H. Sapiens Sapiens (Modern Man) evolves ability to speak ca300 KYA
250-40 KYAModern Man in Africa /Mousterian tools Middle Paleolithic

Illinoisan ‘Great‘ Glaciation (almost to Ohio River) (330), 240& 128 KYA

H.Neanderthalensis(not ancestor to man)in Europe & Asia 200-30 KYA

Mousterian tools used Europe, Africa & Near East 200 KYA–40 KYA

Homo Neanderthalensis in Europe 130 KYA–30 KYA

Last full “interglacial” period (Sangamon Per./N.America) 125-70 KYA

No Humans (Homo) in Britain 120-60 KYA

H. Sapiens Sapiens loses body hair & 1st wears clothes ca114 KYA

Various ‘Homo‘groups throughout world;1stBeringia land bridge 100 KYA

Wisconsin Glaciation coversGr.Lakes to mid Illinois Indiana 70–10 KYA

1stMan-made structure in France 60 KYA

1st Modern Man leaves Africa (last of?3 Homo migrations) ca 55 KYA

Modern Man (H. Sapiens Sapiens) in Central Asia 50-45 KYA


40,000-11,000 YA (hunter/gatherers) Eurasia Upper Paleolithic

H. Sap. Sapiens develops culture and symbolic language 40-37 KYA

H. Sap. Sap. in Australia 40KYA; 1st Modern Man in Europe 40-35 KYA

Aurignacian culture Europe 40-35 KYA; Neanderthals extinct 30 KYA

Homo Sapiens Sapiens only Hominid group left on earth 30 KYA

Paleolithic art Europe 35-10KYA; layered needle sewn garments 30 KYA

bird bone flute 23 KYA; Gravettian ‘M170‘ culture Europe 22 KYA

No Humans (Homo) in Britain due to glacial covering ca20-16 KYA

Wisconsin Glaciation covers Gr.Lakes to mid.IL+IN +N.Eur.20KYA-11 KYA



1st Man crosses Beringia to N. America c spear + dog 20 KYA-15 KYA

Man enters Britain ? on foot from Iberian Peninsula 16-10 KYA
--- 15,000 BC (=17 KYA )and later DATES are BC---
15,000-10,000 BC Rapid Global Warming

Great Lakes form 14,000-13,000; Sahara very dry 13,500-13,000 BC

Clovis big game hunters (1st Indians) Gr. Lakes region 13,000-10,000

rice cultiv.N.Korea;dogs tame E. Asia13,000; figs cultiv.Jordan R.11,400



Megafauna extinct N.America 11,000

“Younger Dryas”, Gulf Stream stops,lastmaj.cold snap Eur. 11,000-9,000


10,000 BC-Present (agriculture -Mesolithic) Holocene Epoch

Indo-European language fragmentation in Europe established 10,000



Pleistocene Ice Ages End(began1.8MYA);6th Gr.Extinct.begins 10,000

mammoths extinct Europe; 1st domestic Cat in near Middle East 10,000

pig domesticated Near East; wheat Iraq; barley Turkey 10,000

pig Iran 9,000; E.Sahara wet & 1stCattle domesticated 8,500-3,300
Cattle+crops Mesopotamia,Syria+Israel; megafauna extinct Europe 8,000

Jericho,Jordan settled; Sheep,Iraq; Cattle, Turkey 8,000

1stboats 7,500; Established settlements &livestock Sahara 7,500-5,300

Çatal Höyük, Turkey, occupied 7,400-6,400; Copper Age Mid.East 7,000



wheel Sumeria 6,600
6,000–3,000 BC Neolithic /Cu Age Mid.East7,000BC , Europe 3,000BC

Bronze Age Mid.East 4,000BC, Europe 3,000BC

Network of little villages exists in the Fertile Crescent by 6,000

Cattle, Turkey; Rice, Thailand;Agriculture Greece; English Channel 6,000

Mediterranean Sea floods thru Bosphorus raising Black Sea level 5,600

Sahara Desert dry ; Cu smelting in Persia ;corn cultivated Mexico 5,500

Earliest estimated arrival of Celtic Lang. in British Isles ca5,200

Mid-Holocene WarmPeriod 5,000-3,000; Beringia floods 5,000

Irrigation Mesopotamia; Camel Arabia;wheat&Barley agricult.Nile 5,000

Wine first made from wild grapes, Greece 5,000

Dimini,Greece settled5,000; Sumerians burn petroleum in lamps 4,500



horse tamed Europe 4,350; Cu smelting Israel ca4,000

Farming England, China &Peru;Celtic-Iberian fishermen in England 4,000



Horses tamed and ridden in Kazakhstan & Ukrainian steppes 4,000

small villages, Mesopotamia 4,000



Uruk begun, one of the oldest cities in Sumaria 3,800

Sumaria dominates Mesopotamia 3,800-2,000

Jerusalem settled; corn,Americas 3,500
3500BC-400AD Ancient World 3500BC-400AD

1st civilization, Mesopotamia (Sumaria) 3,500

Cuneiform in Sumeria 1st written language ca3,300

Wheel +City States,Mesopotamia 3,250;Narmer 1stunifies Egypt 3,150
Increasing Lactose tolerance among cattle raisers in N. Europe 3,000

horse tamed Russia; Camel in Arabia; Pyramid Ukraine 3,000

Hieroglyphics; Menes 1st Pharoah; 1stdam Memphis 3,000

present Sahara desert forms 3,000; Great Pyramid 2,900

Egypt Old Kingdom 2,868-2,160; Cycladic culture, Aegean 2800-2000

Egypt Step-Pyramid -1st Giza pyramid 2,700; papyrus 2,500-2,000

Stonehenge 2,600-2,500; Akkadians 1st to use vowels 2,500

Avebury stone circle 2,300; 300yr Global drought 2,300-2,000



Achaeans bring Mycenaean & Greek languages to Greece 2,200

Egyptian Middle Kingdom ca2,040-ca1,640

2,000 – 1,000 BC Bronze Age England

Phoenicians East.Mediterranean;Celts in Europe; Minoan civ.begins2,000



Irrigation Egypt; Mathematics Babylonia; Judaism begins 2,000

Potato Argentina, 1stsong written in Syria; Minoan civ.begins 2,000

Power shifts from Sumeria to Babylon 2,000-1,100

Anc.Hittite Emp.1,800-1,269;Hammurabi code Mesopotamia 1,792-1,750

Hittites (Indo-European) rise to power in central Turkey 1,680-1,200

Santorini volcano erupts 1,645; Hyksos conquer Egypt c horses 1,640

Hittites in Mesopotamia 1,600-1,200; Mycenaean Greece 1,600-1,200



Egypt enslavesJews ca1,600-1,280

Egyptian New Kingdom (peak of Egypt’s power) 1,550-1,070
Persians (Indo-European) migrate from central Asia to Iran ca1,500

Ayrans moved from same Indo-European group into N. India ca1,500

Sunflower cultiv.Midwest;Olmec cultiv.Cocoa bean;1stSanskrit text 1,500



Kush kingdom on 750 mi of upper Nile to above Khartoum 1,500-2,000

Minoan civ. ends ca1,450; Mycenaean civilization1,400-1,200

Akhenaten brings 1stMonotheism, to Egypt 1,353-1,336

Tutankhamun restores polytheism1,334-1,322; Rameses II 1,290-1,220

Moses +Jews leave Egypt 1,280; peace treaty, Egypt + Hittites 1,269



Assyrians sack Babylon 1,240; Trojan War ca1,200

Sea Peoples“begin disruptive attacks in Eastern Mediterranian ca1,200



1sttraces Etruscan civilization in Italy (probably from W. Turkey) 1,200

Hittite Kngdm.destroyed1,200; Olmec civ.Centr.Amer.(to 400BC) 1,200

Dorians with iron weapons destroy Mycenae

and Begin Greek Dark Ages “Dorian=Geometric Period” 1,150-750



Iron Age Mid. East; Aryans (Medes+Persians) onto Iranian plateau 1100

1stChinese dictionary1100;Assyrian Empire1100-612;KingDavid 1010-970


1,000-900 BC Iron Age begins 1100 BC in Mid.East (700 BC Europe)

Aramaic lang. displaces Babylonian Akkadian in Fertile Crescent ca1,000

Phoenician & Hebrew alphabets have no vowels ca1,000



Umbrians, Sabines, Latins migrate into Italian Peninsula ca1,000

1stVillages @ Rome ; Olmec “glyphs“ Americas; Solomon’s temple 1,000

Kingdom of Israel divides into North (Israel) & South (Judah) 931

1st Etruscan towns, 1st split between Irish & Welsh Celtic langs. 900
9th–6th CENT. BC (Rise of Empires & Religions)(Ancient Greece to 480)

1stGreek city states 900; Phoenicians in E.Mediterr.& Carthage 900

Greeks use Phoenician alphabet 814



Paper currency used in Ancient China 800

Gks. colonize Mediterr.+Black Seas 800-750; Rome founded trad. ca753



Homer’s Iliad ?ca750; end of Greek Dark Age 750

Assyrians dominate Fertile Crescent 744-612

Assyrians overthrow Damascus 732; Assyrians conq. Israel 722
Phoenicians circumnavigate Africa 672;Assyrians rule Egypt 671-651

Ancient Greeks found Byzantium 660; 1st coins struck in Lydia 650

Approximate Period of Roman Kings ca625-500

Assyrian Assurbanipal destroys Elamites(earliest recorded battle) 639

Zoroaster or Zarathustra teaches monotheism ca621-558

EtruscanKings rule ItalianPeninsula &Rome 616-579



NeoBabylonians &Medes conq.Assyria 612-539; Iron Age Europe 600
Lao Tzu: Taoism, China 6th cent.

Babylonians capt.Jerusalem 597; Babyl. destr. Temple &exile Jews 586

Pythagoras 560-480; Croesus k. of Lydia capt.Greek cities 559

Cyrus Persian king 559-529; Confucius, Chinese philosopher ca551-479

Cyrus (Achmaenid Dynasty) conquers Medes, Lydia 550

Cyrus conq.Babylon Empire frees Jews & controls Fertile Crescent 539

Cambysses s. of Cyrus conq. - Persia rules Egypt for 100 yrs 525

Etruscans def.Greeks@Corsica 535; Jews‘ migrations 600-500 & 500-400


5th–4th CENT. BC (Rise of Empires & Religions)

Classical Greece 480-323BC Roman Republic 480-45BC

Hellenistic Age 323-31 BC

Latins @Rome expel Etruscan king and form Roman Republic ca500

Judaismfully developed; Buddha begins Buddhism ;Bible1stwritten ca500



Pericles 495-429; Darius K.Persia inv. Greece in 1st Pers.Wars 490-478

Xerxes K. of Persia defeated @Salamis 485-465; Herodotus 484-ca424

Greek Victory vs. Persia@Salamis &Platea-begins Gk Classical Period 480



Zeno’s paradoxes (the arrow, the dichotomy) 450

Athenian Democracy 464-402;Thucydides ca460-400;Parthenon 447-438

Socrates 439-ca399; 2ndPeloponnesian War, Sparta def.Athens 431-404

Plato 427-347; Olmec civ. Central America ends (began 1200 BC) 400

arabic numerals 1st developed in India 400-300
Romans begin conquest of Italian Peninsula 392

London founded;Celts migrate to England; Celts (Gauls)sack Rome 390



Aristotle384-322;PhillipII k.of Macedon358-336; Phillip def.Athens 339

Rome defeats Latin League 338; 1stRoman coins 338

Gk.Classical Period ends 336; Alexander-Great 336-323



Persia conq. Egypt, dynasties end c Dynasty XXX (began 3100 BC) 343

Alexander th.Great defeats Persian Emp.Darius the Great @Issus 333

Alexander drives Persians from Egypt 332; Alexander dies in Persia 323

Ptolemaic period begins and lasts till Cleopatra‘s death (300 yrs) 323

Seleucus begins Empire in Antioch, but loses Persia & Mesopotamia 323
3rd–1st CENT. BC (Rise of Empires & Religions)

Europe Warm throughout Peak of Roman Empire 300BC-300AD

Chanquillo Monument Peru oldest solar observatory, Americas ca300

Euclid axiomatic geometry 300;1stTeotihuacan civ.in Valley of Mexico 300

Archimedes 287-212; 1stPunic War-Sicily 264-241

Emperor Qin 1stunifies China 221

2nd Punic War–Spain, Hannibal defeated 218-202

Nanyue Kingdom: Zhao Tuo 1stunifies Southern China 203-111
Celts sack Athens + Sparta; Rome conquers last Etruscan city 200

Parachute in China ca200

Eratosthenes measures earth‘s circumference195; Rome conq.Greece 147

3rd Punic warRome def.Carthage 149–146

K.of Pergamon wills kingdom to Rome,brings Rome to W.Asia Min. 133

China gas/oil drilling and wheelbarrow c100; Julius Caesar 100-44

Roman Pompey conq.Syria 64; P.conq.Jerusalem 63



C.-conq.Gaul 58-51

Caesar-raids England 55/54; 1st Triumvirate 52; C-crosses Rubicon 49

Caesar-dictator of Rome 45; Caesar assassinated 44

Virgil‘s Aeneid; Augustus1stEmp.27BC-14AD;A.def.Antony@Actium 31BC



Rome occupies Germany from Rhine to Elbe for21yrs 12BC--9AD
--- AD (CE) ---
1st–3rd CENTURIES AD (early Christianity)_(Europe Warm)

bow&arrow,N.Am.1AD;Germ.Arminius def.Romans,Teutoberger Wald9AD



Christ born ca4; Augustus’ death 14; Christ Crucified ca29

Saul“Paul”converted34Claudius conq.Engl.43-84;Paul’s ltr.Galatians 48-59

Boudicca‘s revolt vs. Rome 61; Rome burns; Nero persec.Christians 64

Mark’sGospel65-70;Paul+Peter crucif.68; Jerusalem Temple destroyed 70

Rome defeats Jews, diaspora begins 73

Ptolemy’s geocentric theory 87-150; Good Emperors 96-180

Trajan(Rom.Emp.-largest) 98-117; John’s Gospel ca100-125

Hadrian 117-138; Hadrian’s wall 122-136

Galen of Pergamum ca130-ca200; Abacus used China ca190

Marcus Aurelius & peak Roman Emp. 161-180;Maya (end 800) begin 200



Magnetic North known and used in China 3rd Cent. AD

All inhabitants of Roman Empire declared Roman citizens 212



Sassanid Empire (Persia) 226-642

Breakup into various Romance languages begins 250

General Postumus‘ Gallic Empire 259-274; Goths sack Athens 268



Diocletian divides Roman Empire 286
4th–6th CENTURIES AD Barbarian Migrations

Breakup into various Germanic languages; China 1stused stirrup 300

1stSaxon raid on England ca300; Constantine Roman Emperor 306–337

Edict of Milan, tolerance for Christians in Roman Empire 313

Arianism begins in Egypt 320; Council of Nicaea outlaws Arianism 324

Constantine moves Roman Empire‘s Capitol to Constantinople 330

Constantius II (Arian) sole E. Roman Emp.350; St.Augustine 354-430

Great Barbarian Invasion of England by Picts, Saxons, Franks 367

Huns defeat Ostrogoths in Ukraine 375 Fleeing Visigoths allowed by

Rome to cross Danube in 376 where Rome lets them starve.

Angry Visigoths then defeat & kill EmperorValens @ Adrianople 378

Theodosius outlaws Arianism.379; declares Christianity State religion 395
400AD to 1000AD Dark Ages-400-1000 AD

Great Invasion -fleeing Franks, Vandals

,Sueves & Burgundians cross Rhine 405-406

Romans lv. England 407;Visigoth Alaric defeats Stilicho+sacks Rome 410

Pelagian heresy begins in Britain 413; Rome outlaws Pelagianism 418

Visigoths in France 418; +Spain419; they drive Vandals to N.Africa 429

Vandals conq.Carthage 439; Saxons,Angles,Jutes invade Engl. ca440-650



Huns take Pannonia 446; Rome defeats Huns @ Chalons 451

Atilla inv.N.Italy+dies 453;OstrogothTheodoric in E.Emp.& Rome 470-526



Saxons in Kent 450; Vandals sack Rome 455

Visigoth Odacer overthrows Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus

Rome falls - Ancient World ends 476

Saxons in Sussex 477; Saxons in Wessex 495

Merovingian’s Clovis I K.of Franks 481-511;Franks become Christian 496


Justinian & Theodora crowned Byzantine Emperor & Empress 527

Nika revolt quelled by Empress Theodora 532

Worldwide cold, drought & ?Large volcanic eruption 533-555

Emperor Justinian reconquers Rome 536

Asian drought drives Avars into Europe536-538; European Plague 542



Visigoths retake Rome 546

Arian Vandals def.in N. Africa 534;Northumbria&Mercia founded 500-600



Ethelbert king in Kent 560;Justinian dies 565; Mohammed born ca570

Visigoths,Spain+Lombards,Italy quit Arianism become Christian 587+589



Saxons in Kent converted from Pelagianism to Christianity 597
7th -9thCENTURIES AD (Rise of Islam 632)_ (1st Viking raids 793)

600 Middle Ages (Theocracy) to 1400AD ____ ____________

Visigoths retake Spain from Roman empire 614-620

Hijira, -Mohammed and followers flee to Mecca 622

Mohammed’s death begins 100yr. Islamic expansion from Arabia 632

Frankish Empire 636; 1stFrench & German language differences 636

St.Oswald K.Northumbria 633-642; Arabs def. Sassanid Emp.642



Arianism ends in Lombardy & Spain 650;Arabs defeat Carthage 698

Moors conquer Visigothic Spain, bring arabic numerals to Europe 711

Charles Martel defeats Moors (Muslims) @ Poitiers 732



Pepin son of Martel expels Moors from.Aquitania 752

Offa King of Mercia+Engl.757-796; 1stEngl.silv.penny 757-796



Charlemagne s.of Pepin,k.Franks 768-814

Charlemagne takes Rome from Byzantine rulers 774

Danes 1straid Lindisfarne ,Jarrow,& Iona 793-795
1stspacing between words;1stlower case letters;1st written French 9thcent.

Charlemagne crowned 1stHoly Roman Emperor 800

drought leads to Maya collapse (Maya began 200 AD) 800

Charlemagne’s empire divided @ treaty of Verdun 843

MichaelIII sendsCyril&Methodius c glagolitic,cyrillic,alphab.toMoravia 863



Ethelred I Saxon; s of Ethlwulf and king of All England 865/ 866-871

Danes take Northumbria,E.Anglia 867;Vikings disc.settle Iceland 870-874



Alfred Saxon; s of Ethlwulf king of All England S. of Watling St. 871-901

Alfred Defeats ChristianizesDanes 878; Carolingian Empire ends 888



Magyars enter Hungarian plain 895; Anglo-Saxon Chronicles 875-1154
10th CENTURY AD “Medieval Warm Period” begins (900 to 1300)

1stwritten Spanish&Italian texts; 3 Slavonic lang.grps W.So.&E. 10thcent



Edward "the elder" s. of Alfred, King of all Eng. S. of HumberR. 901-924

Viking,Rollo,winsNormandy,Neustria911;Otto I"the great"s.of HI 936-973



Edmund Saxon s. Edw. wins York from Danes 939-946

Eadred Saxon s. Edw. loses York to Eric Bloodaxe 946-955
Scandinavia Christian 950; Eadwig Saxon s. Edw. k. 955-959

Otto def.Magyars Lechfeld955;Edgar "The Great,Peaceful" s.Edw. 959-975



Otto crowned 1stHoly Roman Emperor 962; Edgar 1st King all Engl. 973

Edward Saxon "the Martyr" s. Edgar -assassinated 975-978

Ethelred II Saxon "the Unread " s. of Edgar- paid danegeld 978-1016

Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher 980-1037

Danes renew raids on Engl.980;Norse,Eric the Red settles Greenland 986

Kievan Russ adopt Orthodox Christianity 988
11th CENTURY AD High Middle Ages (1000-1400)

Edmund II Saxon "Ironside" s. E II 1016-1017

Cnute Dane gs.of Richard-"the fearless"of Normandy–

def. Edmund II 1017 to become 1st King of All England1017-1035



Harold I "Harefoot", s. of Cnute 1035-1040; Seljuk Empire 1035-1157

Harthacanute s.Cnute 1035-1042

Edw."Confessor"Saxon s.Ethelred 1042-1066



Chinese invent moveable type printing press 1043
Great Schism between. Orthodox & Catholic Christian Churches 1054

Harold II b-in-law of Edw. The Confessor elected king by Witan 1066

Middle English spoken 1066-1500; Cahokia Mounds ca1050–ca1300

William Conq. Norman ggs.of Rich."the fearless"-Normandy 1066-87

Ottoman Turks defeat Byzantines @ Manzikert 1071

Henry IV H.R.E. @ Canossa absolved by Pope Gregory VII 1077

NormanConquest1066-1072;DomesdayBookpop.Engl.=1.1mil. 1086

William II Norman "rufus" s of W I; tyrant; ?murdered 1087-1100

Urban II begins 1stCrusade vs. Jews &infidel 1095

1stCrusade takes Jerusalem 1099
12th CENTURY High Middle Ages Crusaders

(Germans move east against Slavs 12th+13th centuries)

Iron plows replace wooden plows /most of Northern Europe 12thcent.

barley growing ended in Iceland due to increasing cold 12thcent.

1stwritten Portuguese texts 12th cent.



Henry I Norman 4th (s. of W I); pennies called 'starlings‘ 1100-1135

King Kalman & union of Hungary,Croatia & Slavonia 1095-1114

Averroës, Cordoba Muslim philosoph. comb. Gk.&Islam ideas 1126-1198

StephenNorman gs.W I, s.Adela(d of WI)1135-54;-civil war 1138-1153

Jerusalem not conquered in 2nd Crusade 1147-1149



sugar 1st to Europ. from Middle East in 2ndCrusade 1147-1149
Henry II Plantagenet gs of H I marries Eleanor of Aquitaine 1154-1189

Ghengis Khan ca1162-1227

English conq. of Ireland begins c Strongbow inv. Ireland 1169-1172

Saladin con q. Egypt +Syria 1138-1193; Muslims retake Jerusalem 1187

Richard I "Lionheart"Plantagenet s of H II 1189-1199

Rich.I in 3rdCrusade 1187-1192; John Plantagenet s.of H II 1199-1216


13th CENTURY High Middle Ages Crusaders

(Germans move east against Slavs 12th+13th cts)

arabic numerals little used 13ct.Europe; Cath.Priests 1stcelibate 1200

Fibonacci numbers 1202; 4th Crusade conquers Jerusalem 1202-04

Latin mercenaries sack Constantinople 1204

John- loses Normandy to Phillip II 1208; University of Paris 1209

Btl. Of Bouvines 1214; Lateran Council against Jews;Magna Carta 1215



Henry III Plantagenet s ofJ,-"Provisions of Oxford"Parliament1216- 1272

Fred.II H.R.E.1220; Andras II Hung.+Golden Bull 1222

St.Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274; Mongols inv. Russia, destroy cities 1227

Frederick II-devolves authority to Germ.Princes 1232



Mongols invade Hungary; 1stgunpowder in Europe from China 1242
Florentine Florin, reintroduced gold coins 1252

Great Interregnum Holy R.Emp 1254-73; German monarchy elective 1257



Mongols destroy Baghdad; Prov.of Oxford Engl.=no autocracy 1258

Hanseatic League1259-17thC. btl. Of Lewes /deMontfort capts.H III 1264



Edw.wins@Evesham-deMontfort killed1265;Dante Aleghieri 1265-1321

Marco Polo‘s journeys to China 1271 +1295

Edward I Anjou s.H III "longshanks; Hammer of Scots" 1272-1307

Kublai Khan conquers China begins Mongol Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368

Rudolph 1stCount Hapsburg elected H.R.E. (Holy Roman Emperor) 1273

EdwI conq. Wales 1277-1282; Rudolph def. Otakar v Bohemia 1278

Osman I -1st Ottoman ruler 1281-1324; Jews exp. from England 1290

Swiss Confederation begun (as protection from Austria) 1291
14th CENTURY late middle ages “Little Ice Age” 1316-1860

Italian Renaissance 1375-1527

Polynesians colonize New Zealand (last major land mass) ca1300

Edward II Anjou s.of E I 1307-1327;-def. by Scots @Bannockburn 1314

crop failure & famine in Europe 1315+1316

Little Ice Age” begins 550yrs-7degreed colder+wetter weather

with uncertain summers in Northern Europe 1316-1860

Florence/1st gunpowder weapons1320; English civil war 1321 + 1322



Osman Turks invade Bursa 1326

Edw. III Anjou s.of EII seeks French Throne; gold florin & noble 1327-77

John Wyclif 1330-1384; Ibn Khaldun Muqaddima 1332-1406



100 Yrs War 1338-1453; Geoffrey Chaucer 1340-1400

Engl.-victory@naval Battle.of Sluys; Ed III titled, king of France 1340

Engl.- vict. @ Crecy c longbow 1346; Ottomans invade Thrace 1340s

Plague kills 1/3 of Europe and 1/2 of England 1347-1350

Inca Empire Peru 1350-1533; English victory @ Poitiers 1356

Papal Bull gives German Princes autonomy 1356

English replaces French in Engl.Law courts 1362; & in Engl. schools 1385



Ming Dynasty China 1368-1644

Richard II gs Ed III deposed; + imprisoned @ Pontefract 1377-1399

Wyclif condemned 1382; first English Bible 1388

Turks first invade Hungary 1390; Jews expelled From France 1394

Prince Henry the Navigator, Portugal-begins age of discovery 1394-1460
15th CENTURY Peak of Renaissance/ Age of Discovery/ Middle Ages End

Gr.Vowel Shift English speech ca1400-1550;arabicnumerals.Eur. 15th C.

Henry IV Lancaster gs of E III –usurper 1399-1413

Poland/Lithuania def. Teutonic Knights/Prussia @Tannenberg 1410

HenryVs.ofHIV1413-22;1st sent letters in English;def.Fr.@Agincourt 1415

Henry VI Lancaster s of H V; insane; deposed + murdered 1422-1471

Joan of Arc 1429-31; Portuguese to Guinea in search of slaves 1440

1st Slaves ,Azores by Port.;Murad II def. Laszlo I, Hungary@Varna 1444

France retakes Normandy 1449-1450


Increasing cold forces the end of wine cultivation in England 1450

Engl. Drivn.frm France;Ottom.TurksMehmet II conq.Constantinople 1453



Wars of the Roses "Cousin’s War" "Lancaster vs.York" 1455-1487

Gutenberg Bible 1458; 1stcannon used in battle 1461

Edward IV York ggs of E III 1461-70 and 1471-1483

Erasmus of Rotterdam 1466-1636; Niccolo Macchiavelli 1469-1527

St.Bartholomews’ Day Massacre 1472

Ferdinand -Aragon & Isabella –Castille 1469-1516

1stbook printed in Magyar langage1473; 1stbook printed in London 1477

Spanish Inquisition1478;Thos.More 1478-1535;Martin Luther 1483-1546

Greenland Norse population disappears due to extreme cold 1480-1500

Edw.VYork murd.Tower age12;writing,England no longer Latin orFr. 1483

Richard III York br. of Ed IV; killed @ Battle of Bosworth 1483-1485

Henry VII Tudor –def. Rich. III 1485-1509

B. Diaz sails around Cape of Good Hope1487; 1stgold sovereign 1489

Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556; Columbus discovers West Indes 1492

Islamic Granada falls; Jews expelled from Spain 1492

Treaty of Tordisellas; Pope divides world between Spain+Portugal 1494

V. Da Gama sails around Africa to India -outflanking Islam 1497-1498

John Cabot claims Newfoundland for England 1497


16th CENT. Reformation (2nd sack of Rome 1527) Renaissance ends

Middle English ends & modern Engl.slowly takes its place. (1066)- 1500

Peak of Jagellonian dynasty in Bohemia Hung. Poland & Lithuania 1500

1stEngl.shilling(testoon)1504;Calvin1509-67;1stSlaves intoCarribean 1510



Henry VIII Tudor s. HVII 1509-1547;defeats Scots@Floddenfield 1513

Ponce De Leon establishes St. Augustine (1st colony in US) 1513

Balboa discovers Pacific 1513; Macchiavelli’s "The Prince" 1513

Copernicus’ heliocentric theory 1514; Francis I, K. France 1515-1547

Chas.V, K. Spain gs. Ferdinand + Isabella 1516-1556

Ottomans conq.Syria & Egypt1516; Ottomans conq.Mecca & Medina 1517



Luther's 95 Theses begin Reformation; Mexico discovered 1517

Joachimstaler mine -Thaler coin 1519



Aztec Teotihaucan conq.by Cortes/defeat of Aztec Empire 1519-1521

Chas.V HRE.1519-1558; German inv.rifle; Bacon Scientific Method 1520

Magellansails around globe1520-22;Suleyman“The Magnificent” 1520-66



Suleym. capt. Belgrade 1521; Chales V.bans Luther at Worms 1521

Suleyman + Ottomans kill Lajos II k. of Hungary @ btl.Mohacs 1526

Ferd. I, 1stHabsburg ruler of Hungary1526-64; 2nd sack of Rome 1527

Siege ofVienna1529;Pizzaro+horses capt.Atahualpa defeating Incas1533



Henry VIIIestab.Church of Eng. Cartier charts Gulf of St.Lawr.Riv. 1534

Copernicus’ Revolutionibus Orb. & Vesalius’ Anatomy 1534

Union England +Wales1536; dissolution of English monasteries 1536-39



Coronado reaches Kansas; Ignatius Loyola forms Jesuits 1540

Turks occupy Buda 1541-1686; Cabrillo explores Calif. coast 1542

Inquisition @ Rome 1542; Vesalius‘ detailed Human Anatomy 1543

Council of Trent(Paul III+Chas.V.)starts Counter-Reformation 1545-63



Edward VI Tudor s. HVIII Prot.; 1st dated English shilling 1547-53
peak Ottoman invas.Eur.1550s; Gr.Vowel Shift,Engl.speech ca1400-1550

British slave trade begins c 4 slaves brought back to England 1554

St.Augustine is the 1st permanent settlement in North America 1565

Selim II “the Sot”1566-74; Mary Tudor-restores Catholicism 1553-1558

Mary begins persecuting Protestants 1555

Peace of Augsburg H.R.Empire Cath.vs.Prot.-areas took ruler’s faith 1555



Chas.VH.R.E.1520-1556resigns in favor ofbro.Ferd.I&sonPhillip II 1555

Chas.Vgives Spain to s.PhillipII-H.R.E.1556-98&Austr.toFerd.I 1556-64

Phillip II m.MaryTudor Cath.1554-58; 1,500 Sp.colonists,Pensacola FL ‘59

Catholic Index Librorum Prohibitorum (book censorship until 1966) 1559

Elizabeth Itudor,d.HVIII Prot.1558-1603;Puritans(Engl.Calvinists) 1560

Potato to Europe from Chile 1564-1565; Shakespeare 1564-1616

Drakecircles globe1577-1580;Cossacks retake RussiafromMongols 1581

Gregorian Calendar 1582; Mary Queen of Scots executed 1587

Spanish Armada def. by Engl. 1588; Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679



René Descartes 1596-1650; de Onate estab.Pueblo CO 1598

Edict of Nantes (tolerance for Prot.) 1598; Potato to England 1599
17th CENTURY (Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment-late 17thC.)

Little Ice Age” 150 yrs of much colder climate



Fairy Tales 1stwritten down 1600-1750; English East India Co. 1600

Baroque Music Period in Europe 1600-1750



Potato to Ireland ca1600; Dutch E. India Co. 1602

1stperm.Fr.settlement Port Royal, Nova Scotia 1605

Catholic plot Guy Fawkes1605;Jamestown1stperm.Brit.col.N.Am. 1607

Champlain - Quebec City1608; Kepler, planet orbits elliptical 1609



James I Stuart s.Mary Q.of Scots 1603-1625; King James Bible 1611

Hudson discov. Hudson River 1609; Poles occupy Moscow1610+1617 /18

Gustavus Adolphus k.Sweden1611-1632;Mihail,1stRomanoff Tsar1613 -45



Galileo defends Copernicism; 1st “modern“ English dictionary 1616

France colonizes Quebec1617;1stN.American Slaves @Jamestown 1619

30 yrs.War ends cTreaty of Westphalia; handheld guns 1stused 1618 -48

Mayflower & Pilgrims 1620; Rev Wm. Oughtred invents slide rule 1622

Pascal 1623-62;Dutch settle New Amsterdam1624; 1stSlaves NYC 1628

Wm Harvey – human blood circ. 1628

Charles IStuart s.of J. I, executed1625-49; Parliament Dissolved 1629

Mass. Bay Charter: freedom of relig.-English rights 1629

large English migrations to Mass. 1630; John Locke 1632-1704

Gustavus Adolphus-saves Protestant Cause @ Breitenfeld&Lutzen1631-32

Galileo, under threat, abjures Copernicus1633; English civil wars 1638-51



Louis XIV of France 1643-1715;battle of Naseby 1645

“Maunder Minimum”-decreased sunspots & very cold weather 1645-1715



Charles I executed1649; Oliver Cromwell1649-60;C-conq.Ireland 1649
Cromwell-conq.Scotland 1650-52; Canada a French colony 1650

Hobbes Leviathan; 1stmilled coins England 1651

Potato-Hungary 1654; Charles X inv. Poland 1655



Leopold IAust-Hung.1655-1705; Charles II Stuart s.of Js. I 1660-1685

Louis XIV adult rule began1661;last hammered shilling1662; plague 1665

English seize New Amsterdam &New Jersey from Dutch 1664/65

Vico 1668-1744; Liberum Veto 1st used in Polish Parliament 1669

Hudson's Bay Company1670; 1stEnglish govt.-issued copper coins 1672

Marquette&Joliet expl.IL+MSrivers1673;VanLuewenhoek microscope 1674

KingPhilip'sWar(Metacomet)1675;Romer,speed oflightfinite,constant 1676

Peter the Great of Russia 1682 -1725



La Salle claims all land, drained by Mississippi river for France 1682

Bt.ofVienna,Turksdef.1683;Leibnitzdifferential &integralCalculus 1684+86

LouisXIV revokes EdictofNantes1685;JamesIIStuart s.ofJI Cath.1685- 89

J.S. Bach 1685-1750; Newton's Principia Mathematica 1687

Newton’s The Calculus 1687; JamesII flees to France 1688



Montesquieu 1689-1755; Wm ofOrange&MaryStuart d.of J II 1689- 94

Wm. III 1694-1702; K. Wm's War / War of League of Augsburg1689- 97

Wm.III def. Irish+Fr.@ Btl.ofBoyne1690;Engl.press censorship ends 1695



Treaty of Ryswick ends war of France against England, Neth.+Sp. 1697

Bayle, Historical and Critical Dictionary 1697

Habsburgs take Hungary frm.Turks@Karlowitz / rule Hung.‘till 1919 1699

1st Fr.col.in Louisiana & mission@Cahokia 1699
18th CENTURY Industrial Revolution begins

Historical period of Enlightenment ca1730-1780

French Revolution begins Era of Nationalism

1st English daily newspaper 1702 ; Anne Stuart d.of J II 1702-1714



War ofSpanish Succession1702-1713;-aka Queen Anne's War 1701-12

Hungarians revolt against Habsburg rule 1703-11; John Wesley 1703-91

French def at Btl.Blenheim 1704; Union Scotl.+Engl.1707; Piano 1709

Iron smelting with coke, 1st heavy coal use @ Coalbrookdale Eng. 1709

Hume 1711-76; Newcomen, 1ststeam engine 1712; Rousseau 1712-78



Diderot 1713-84; Geo.I Hanover ggs ofJs I; spoke no English 1714-27

New Orleans 1718; Scot.&Eng.warmer 1720; Kant 1724-1804



turnpikeroads Engl.1730;Illinois,RoyalFr.Prov.gov.directly-LouisXIV 1731

Arkwright mill (1770) begins Industrial Rev. in England 1730- 1840

Enlightenment +entry of Middle Class & philos.Humanism1730- 1780

?Classical Music era begins ca1733or 1750 ; Methodism 1738

Geo.IIHannover s ofG I 1727-1760; Btl.of Culloden won by Geo II 1746

Maria Theresa d.Ch VI & w. of FrancisI 1740-1780;slave revoltNYC 1741

War of Austrian Succession p.death of Chas. VI H.R.E. 1740-48

aka King George's War in N. America1744–48



Fredrick The Great 1740-1786; F-takes Silesia from Habsburgs 1745
1ststage coach travel Hungary,Baroque Music Era (began1600)ends 1750

Classical Music Period (i.e.music without folk origins) ends ca1750 - 1820

Great Lisbon Earthquake killed thousands of churchgoers on Sunday 1755

French and Indian War in North America 1754-1763

aka.Seven Years War in Eur.-Brit,Prussia vs Fr,Aust,Russ 1756- 1763

W.A.Mozart 1756-91; British take French Quebec 1759

Voltaire’s “Candide“ from his disillusion c God p Lisbon Earthquake 1759

1stcanalsFr.&Engl.1760;Geo.III Hanover gsGII electr.Hanover1760- 1820

Catherine the Gr. Russia 1762-96; British drive Fr. from Canada 1763

Louis XV cedes NewFrance (E.of Miss.R) to Brit. @ Treaty.of Paris 1763

St.Louis village estab.1764;Stamp Act1765;Watt Steam eng.patent 1769

English stagecoach roads 1770s; Ludwig van Beethoven 1770- 1827

Boston Massacre 1770

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