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Musical gestures Harmonic sequence


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Chapter 3



Time

Section

Sub Section

Musical gestures

Harmonic sequence

Lyrics

Translation

0–0:04

0:05–0:18



Intro

i1

i2


Solo guitar: parallel sixths
Solo guitar: sequence

+

Rhythm guitar: Cinquillo rhythmic pattern



F min

B flat min - F min - C - F min









0:20–0:30

0:31–0:40



A

a1

a2


Cinquillo in melody and rhythm guitar
Clave syncopation in melody

F min - F - A dim - B flat min

B flat min - F min - C - F min



Hay en tus negros ojos zegríes, lumbre de Oriente, radiante luz;

miel en tus labios y, cuando ríes, fingen tus dientes perlas de Ormuz



There is, in your black, Zegri [Arab] eyes, fire from Orient, radiant light;

honey in your lips, and, when you laugh, your teeth look like pearls from Hormuz



0:42–0:54

Interlude 1

i2

Solo guitar: sequence

+

Rhythm guitar: Cinquillo rhythmic pattern



B flat min - F min - C - F min







0:55–1:05

1:06–1:17



A’

a’1

a’2


Cinquillo in melody and rhythm guitar
Cinquillo in melody and rhythm guitar


F min - F - A dim - B flat min

B flat min - E flat (with minor seventh) - A flat -C



Nido de aromas es tu cabello; tu dulce frente palio de amor,

y suave y terso tu grácil cuello, erecto tallo de esbelta flor



A nest of aromas is your hair; your sweet forehead is a pallium for love,

and soft and terse, your graceful neck is the erect stem of a slender flower



1:18–1:38

1.39–1:57



B

b1
b2

Cinquillo in melody and rhythm guitar

Solo guitar imitates melody in parallel thirds



F - G min - C - F

F - F (+ minor 7th) - B flat -B flat min - F - C -F



¿Qué ardiente gota sorbí al besarte? ¿Qué miel me diste para beber? Que por seguirte, por adorarte, te he dado todo, todo mi ser.
Deja que bese tus labios rojos, tu frente suave, seda de Ofir; deja que bese tus negros ojos, tus ojos negros hasta morir

Which ardent drop did I sip when kissing you? Which honey did you give me to drink? Since to follow you, to adore you, I have given up everything, my whole being.
Let me kiss your red lips, your soft forehead, silk from Ophir; let me kiss your black eyes, your black eyes until I die.

1:58–2:16



Interlude 2

i3

Solo in parallel sixths, featuring the Cinquillo pattern

F - C - F major







2:17–2:55


B

b1
b2


Cinquillo in melody and rhythm guitar

Solo guitar imitates melody in parallel thirds



F - G min-C - F

F - F (+ minor 7th) - B flat - b flat min - F - C -F



¿Qué ardiente gota sorbí al besarte? ¿Qué miel me diste para beber? Que por seguirte, por adorarte, te he dado todo, todo mi ser.
Deja que bese tus labios rojos, tu frente suave, seda de Ofir; deja que bese tus negros ojos, tus ojos negros hasta morir

Which ardent drop did I sip when kissing you? Which honey did you give me to drink? Since to follow you, to adore you, I have given up everything, my whole being.
Let me kiss your red lips, your soft forehead, silk from Ophir; let me kiss your black eyes, your black eyes until I die.

Chart 2. Descriptive chart of “Pasión” by Guty Cárdenas and Luis Rosado Vega, as recorded in 1930 for the Columbia label.




Time

Section

Sub Section

Musical gestures

Harmonic sequence

Lyrics

Translation

0–0:20

Intro

i

Solo requinto

+ Rhythm guitar



A - F# min - B min - E7 - A - F# min - B min - B dim (-7) - A - E7 - A







0:20–0:38

A

a1

a1


Three-voice harmony in homophonic style

+ requinto solos





A - D - E

A
A - D - E

A


Vende caro tu amor;

Aventurera


Da el precio del dolor

A tu pasado



Sell your love expensively

Adventuress


Give the price of pain

To your past



0:39–1:08

B

b1

b2

b3



Three-voice harmony in homophonic style

+ requinto solos




C#7

F# min
B7 - B7 min - E

A - D - E - A


Y aquel que de tu boca

La miel quiera


Que pague con brillantes tu pecado
Que pague con brillantes tu pecado

And whoever desires the

Honey in your lips


Let them pay your sin with diamonds
Let them pay your sin with diamonds

1:09–1:45


B’

b1’

b2’


b4

a2


Three-voice harmony in homophonic style

+ requinto solos




C#7

F# min
B7 - B7 min - E

A - F# dim (+6th) - B min - E7

A


Ya que la infamia

De tu cruel destino


Marchitó tu admirable primavera
Haz menos escabroso tu camino
Vende caro tu amor

Aventurera



Since the infamy

of your cruel destiny


Withered your admirable spring
Make your path less scabrous
Sell your love expensively

Adventuress



1:46–2:04

Interlude

i


Solo requinto

+ Rhythm guitar



A - F# min - B min - E7 - A - F# min - B min - B dim (-7) - A - E7 - A







2:05–2:22

A

a1

a1


Voices in parallel homophonic style

+ requinto solos




A - D - E

A
A - D - E

A


Vende caro tu amor;

Aventurera


Da el precio del dolor

A tu pasado



Sell your love expensively

Adventuress


Give the price of pain

To your past



2:23–2:52


B

b1

b2

b3



Solo voice

+ requinto solos


+ Three-voice harmony in homophonic style

+ requinto solos


C#7

F# min
B7 - B7 min - E

A - D - E - A


Y aquel que de tu boca

La miel quiera


Que pague con brillantes tu pecado
Que pague con brillantes tu pecado

And whoever desires the

Honey in your lips


Let them pay your sin with diamonds
Let them pay your sin with diamonds

2:54–3:29

B’

b1’

b2’


b4

a2


Solo voice

+ requinto solos


+ Three-voice harmony in homophonic style + requinto solos



C#7

F# min
B7 - B7 min - E

A - F# dim (+6th) - B min - E7

A


Ya que la infamia

De tu cruel destino


Marchitó tu admirable primavera
Haz menos escabroso tu camino
Vende caro tu amor

Aventurera



Since the infamy

of your cruel destiny


Withered your admirable spring
Make your path less scabrous

Sell your love expensively

Adventuress


3:30–3:40

Codetta




Three-voice harmony in homophonic style

D min - A

Aventurera

Adventuress

Chart 3. Descriptive chart of “Aventurera” by Agustín Lara, played by Los Tres Reyes.

Companion Analyses for Chapter 3
Analysis of Guty Cárdenas’s “Pasión” (CD track 3)
Recorded in 1930 with an ensemble of two guitars, the song starts with a 12-measure instrumental introduction in which the rhythm guitar features the cinquillo cubano and a variation of the clave rhythms (only the dotted quarter-dotted quarter-quarter note pattern in first three measure of the clave pattern), and the solo guitar plays a sequential melodic line over a repeated iv-i6/4-V-i harmonic progression in f minor (Example 1). Notice the prevalence of variations of the cinquillo cubano not only in the accompanying guitar part but also in the construction of the song’s main melody in “hay en tus negros ojos ze[gríes],” in “[O]riente radiante,” and in “dientes perlas de Or[muz]” (Example 2). The sense of syncopation brought up by the cinquillo and its variations is further emphasized by the dotted quarter values at the end of the first two phrases in “[ze]gríes” and in “labios,” reminiscent of the first portion of the clave rhythmic pattern in Fig 3.3 (in the book).

The song is in binary form with an instrumental introduction and interludes between the repeats of the A and B sections (follow Chart 2). The overall structure is Introduction-A-Interlude 1-A’-B-Interlude 2-B. The introduction, the A section, and the first interlude are in the key of f minor while the B section and the second interlude in the key of F major. The introduction (Example 1) is divided in two sections, i1, which is a brief introductory motive in parallel sixths (0:00–0:04)) and i2, a repeated four-bar iv-i6/4-V-i sequence (0:05-0:16) that ends on a tonic chord repeated in cinquillo pattern (0:16–0:18). The A section is divided in two subsections; the first one, a1, from “hay en tu ojos” to “luz” (0:20–0:30) is based on a i-V harmonic motion with a brief hint to F major in “lumbre de Oriente”; the second one, a2, from “miel en tus ojos” to “Ormuz” (0:31–0:40) is based on a V-i motion. Interlude 1 is a textual repetition of the iv-i6/4-V-I sequence from the introduction. A’ is also divided in two subsections; the first one, a’1 (0:55–1:05). Subsection a’1 starts like a1 but ends with a different melodic gesture in “tu dulce frente”; the second subsection, a’2 (1:06–1:17), is modulatory sequence to F major. The B section is divided in two 12-bar subsections; the first one (1:18–1:38) continues to borrow from the cinquillo pattern to build a melody over a simple harmonic progression in F major. Subsection b2 shows a more interesting harmonic sequence, reminiscent of mid-19th century romantic music, with expressive major–minor shifts (B flat major–b flat minor) and auxiliary dominant inflections (F major with minor seventh = V7/V).


Analysis of Agustín Lara’s “Aventurera” as performed by Los Tres Reyes (CD track 4)

Structure

Structured in an ABB’ form with an instrumental introduction and interlude, “Aventurera” varies with different interpretations. The version by Los Tres Reyes included in the book’s companion CD (track 4) is a recent recording in guitar trio style that repeats the ABB’ after the interlude. In his earlier recordings, Lara bases the instrumental interlude on the harmonic sequence and melodic contour of the B’, which he repeats after the interlude to bring the song to a close. Noteworthy in this song is the composer’s use of motivic material. Listening to the song and following the listening guideline in Chart 3 you may notice that the A section is made out of the repetition of two a1 subsections but it lacks the usual a2 closing subsection. Instead, Lara introduces a B section that at first seems to harmonically fulfill the role of the closing a2 subsection (by tonicizing f# minor and moving into the dominant area, E major). However, the different motivic material as well as its lengths clearly makes this into a different section, not a closing subsection of A. B’ is made out of two large subsections, the first one, comprised of b1’ and b2’ is a repeat of the first party of B but with different lyrics this time; the second part of B’ brings a move away from A major via an f# diminished + 6th chord to close the section with a recapitulation of the motivic material from the A section (the lyrics from A are also repeated, “Vende caro tu amor”) at a2. One could make sense of the song’s overall structure as a kind of truncated A section that is only resolved at the end of the B section.

Example 1. Introduction to “Pasión” by Guty Cárdenas and Luis Rosado Vega.



Example 2. From “Pasión” by Guty Cárdenas and Luis Rosado Vega.

List of Important Bolero Composers and Singers

Composers:

Ricardo Palmerín (1889–1944)

Alfonso Esparza Oteo (1894–1950)

María Grever (1894–1951)

Agustín Lara (1897–1970)

Gonzalo Curiel (1904–1958)

Augusto Alejandro “Guty” Cárdenas (1905–1932)

Luis Arcaraz (1910–1963)

Alberto Domínguez (1911–1975)

Consuelo Velázquez (1916–2005)

Álvaro Carrillo (1921–1969)

Vicente Garrido (1924–2003)

Rubén Fuentes (b. 1926)

Armando Manzanero (b. 1935)
Singers:

José Mojica (1896–1974)

Juan Arvizu (1900–1985)

Pedro Vargas (1906–1989)

Libertad Lamarque (1908–2000) [originally from Argentina]

Ramón Armengod (1909–1976)

“Toña la Negra” [María Antonia del Carmen Peregrino Alvarez] (1912–1982)

Emilio Tuero (1912–1971)

Pedro Infante (1917–1957)

Pepe Jara (1928–2005)

Javier Solís (1931–1966)

María Victoria (b. 1933)

Marco Antonio Muñiz (b. 1933)
Trios:

Trio Tariácuri

Hermanos Flores

Los Panchos

Los Calavera

Los Tres Ases

Los Tres Diamantes

Los Dandys

Los Tecolines

Los Tres Ases

Los Tres Reyes

List of important bolero ranchero composers and singers (1960s–current)


Composers:

Manuel Esperón (1911–2011)

Rubén Fuentes (b. 1926)

Roberto Cantoral (1935–2010)

Juan Gabriel [Alberto Aguilera Valadés] (b. 1950)

Ana Gabriel [María Guadalupe Araujo Yong] (b. 1955)


Singers:

Miguel Aceves Mejía (1915–2006)

Pedro Infante (1917–1957)

Javier Solís [Gabriel Siria Levario] (1931–1966)

Lola Beltrán [María Lucila Beltrán Ruíz] (1932–1996)

Enriqueta Jiménez “La Prieta Linda” (b. ca. 1932)

Lucha Villa [Luz Elena Ruíz Bejarano] (b. 1936)

Vicente Fernández (b. 1940)

Rocío Dúrcal [María de los Angeles de la Heras Ortíz] (1944–2006) [originally from Spain]

Juan Gabriel [Alberto Aguilera Valadés] (b. 1950)

Ana Gabriel [María Guadalupe Araujo Yong] (b. 1955)

Lucero [Lucero Hogaza León] (b. 1969)



Pedro Fernández [José Martín Cuevas Cobos] (b. 1969)

Alejandro Fernández (b. 1971)


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