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A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology


by José Ángel García Landa

(University of Zaragoza, Spain)

Metrics, Prosody, Versification and Rhyme

Early works


Early works
Arnold, Thomas. "On English Metres." In Arnold, A Manual of English Literature: Historical and Critical. 4th. ed. London: Longmans, 1877. 523-34.*

Banville, Théodore de. Petit traité de poésie française. 1872. In Oeuvres. Paris: Lemerre.

Barbieri, Giammaria: Dell' Origine della Poesia Rimata, con le annotazioni dal Cav. Ab. Girolamo Tiraboschi. Modena: Soc. Tipogr., 1790.

Bede. De Arte Metrica. De Ortographia. In Keil, Grammatici Latini 7.

Browne, Thomas (Sir). "Of Ropalic or Gradual Verses, Etc.." In Certain Miscellany Tracts. 1684. In The Works of Sir Thomas Browne. Ed. Charles Sayle. Edinburgh: John Grant, 1927. 3.304-6.*

Daniel, Samuel. "A Defence of Ryme." In Daniel, Panegyrike to the King. . . London: Blount, 1603.

_____. "A Defence of Ryme." In Elizabethan Critical Essays. Ed. G. Gregory Smith. Oxford, 1904. Vol. 2.

_____. "A Defence of Ryme." In Samuel Daniel, A Defence of Ryme; Thomas Campion, Observations in the art of English Poesie. London: Lane. New York: Dutton, 1925.

_____. "A Defence of Ryme." In The Great Critics. Ed. J. H. Smith and E. W. Parks. New York: Norton, 1932. 188-211.*

_____. Selected Poetry and A Defence of Rhyme. Ed. Geoffrey Hiller and Peter Groves. Asheville (NC): Pegasus Press, 1998.

Dryden, John. "Rhyme and Blank Verse: To the Right Honourable Roger, Earl of Orrery; Epistle Dedicatory of The Rival Ladies: A Tragicomedy." 1694. In Dryden's Essays. London: Dent; New York: Dutton, 1912. 183-88.

Gascoigne, George. "Certayne Notes of Instruction concerning the Making of Verse." In Gascoigne, Posies. 1575. Rpt. in Elizabethan Critical Essays. Ed. G. Gregory Smith. Oxford, 1904. Vol. 1.

Gracia, A. Diccionario de la rima o consonantes de la lengua castellana, precedido de los elementos de poética y arte de la versificación española y seguido de un vocabulario de todas las voces poéticas con sus respectivas definiciones. Barcelona: Antonio Brusi, 1829.

Gray, Thomas. Observations on English Metre. Written 1760-61? Pub. 1814.

Hopkins, Gerald Manley. "Rhythm and Other Structural Parts of Rhetoric—Verse." In The Notebooks and Papers of Gerard Manley Hopkins.

James VI. "Ane Schort Treatise conteining some Reulis and Cautelis in Scottis Poesie." In King James VI, The Essayes of a Prentis in the Divine art of Poesie. Edinburgh: Thomas Vautrollier, 1584. Rpt. in Elizabethan Critical Essays. Ed. G. Gregory Smith. Oxford, 1904. Vol. 1.

Keil, Heinrich, ed. Grammatici Latini. 7 vols and suppl. Leipzig: Teubner, 1857-80.

López Pinciano, Alonso. "Epístola séptima. Del metro." In López Pinciano, Philosophia antigua poetica. 1596. Madrid: CSIC, 1973. 2.217-99.*

Mallarmé, Stéphane. "Crise de vers." 1896. In Mallarmé, Œuvres complètes. Paris: Gallimard, 1945.

_____. "Crise de vers." 1896. In Poésies. Anecdotes ou poèmes. Pages diverses. Ed. Daniel Leuwers. Paris: LGF, 1977. 195-208.*

_____. "Crisis in Verse." In Symbolism: An Anthology. Ed. T. G. West. London: Methuen, 1980. 1-12.*

Matthew of Vendôme. Ars Versificatoria.  c. 1185. Trans. R. P. Parr. Milwaukee (WI), 1981.

Milton. "The Verse." Prefatory note to Paradise Lost, added 1668, with "The Argument", to the remaining copies of the 1st ed. of Paradise Lost. Rpt. 1674. In The Poems of John Milton. Ed. H. Darbishire. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1961. 180.*

Poe, Edgar Allan. "Notes on English Verse." The Pioneer (1843). (1st version of "The Rationale of Verse").

_____. "The Rationale of Verse." Southern Literary Messenger (1848).

_____. "The Rationale of Verse." In Poe, Poems and Essays. London: Dent, 1927. 1987. 113-62.*

_____. "The Rationale of Verse." In The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe. (The Modern Library). New York: Random House, 1938. 908-42.*

_____. "Rhyme." In Poe, Poems and Essays 309-12.

Puttenham, George. The Art of English Poesy. 1589. Ed. Gladys D. Willcock and Alica Walker. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1970.

_____. The Arte of English Poesie.  Kent: Kent State UP, 1970.

Ruskin, John. The Elements of English Prosody. Select. in The Literary Criticism of John Ruskin. New York: Doubleday, 1965.

Schütze, J. S. Versuch einer Theorie des Reimes nach Inhalt und Form. Madgeburg, 1802.

Sidney, Philip (Sir). "To my dear Lady and Sister the Countess of Pembroke"; "Nota"; and, "Discussion of Metre" In Sidney, The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia (The Old Arcadia). 1581. Ed. Jean Robertson. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973. (Versification; Authorship; Prosody)

Spenser, Edmund, and Gabriel Harvey. Three Proper and witty Familiar letters. 1580.

_____. Two other very commendable letters. 1580.

Stanyhurst, Richard. "Too Thee Right Honovrable My Verie Looving Broother. Thee Lord Baron of Dvnsanye." In Thee First Fovr Bookes of Virgil His AENeis translated ... by Richard Stanyhurst ... Leiden: Iohn Pates, 1582.

Stevenson, R. L. "On Style in Literature: Its Technical Elements." The Contemporary Review (1885). (Nature of literature; Nature of poetry; Nature of prose; Metre; Rhythm; Style)

_____. "On Some Technical Elements of Style in Literature." In Stevenson, Essays in the Art of Writing. London: Chatto, 1910. 3-46.*

_____. "Sobre algunos elementos técnicos del estilo literario." In Stevenson, Obras completas. Barcelona: RBA, 2005. 4.248-60.*

Sturluson, Snorri. Edda Hàttatal. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991.

Tempo, Antonio da. Summa artis rithmici.  1332.

Webbe, William. A Discourse of English Poetrie. London: R. Walley, 1586.

Young, Edward. Conjectures on Original Composition in a Letter to the Author of Sir Charles Grandison. London: Printed for A. Millar and R. and J. Dodsley, 1759. (Originality; Mimesis; Classical literature; Genius; Rhyme; Addison)

_____. Conjectures on Original Composition. Ed. M. W. Steinke. Philadelphia, 1917.

_____. Conjectures on Original Composition. Ed. Edith J. Morley. Manchester, 1918.

_____. "Conjectures on Original Composition." In The Great Critics. Ed. J. H. Smith and E. W. Parks. New York: Norton, 1932. 353-88.*

_____. "Conjectures on Original Composition: In a letter to the author of Sir Charles Grandison." In Critical Theory since Plato. Ed. H. Adams. San Diego: Harcourt, 1971. 338-347.*
Alonso Cortés, Narciso. Lengua Española: Nociones de gramática histórica y de preceptiva literaria. Valladolid, 1940.

Aoun, Youssef. "Is the Syllable or the Supersyllable a Constituent?" MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 1 (1979): 140-48.

Arp, Thomas R., and Greg Johnson. "Rhythm and Meter." In Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. 8th ed. Boston (MA): Thomson Learning-Heinle & Heinle, 2002.*

Arribas, María Luisa. "La caracterización estilística de las cláusulas anómalas en el hexámetro latino." Epos 5 (1989): 57-80.

Attridge, D. The Rhythms of English Poetry. London: Longman, 1982.

Bailey, James. "An Exploration in Comparative Metrics." Style 21 (1987): 359-76.

Beardsley, Monroe, and W. K. Wimsatt. "The Concept of Meter: An Exercise in Abstraction." PMLA 74 (1959).

Beaver, Joseph C. "A Grammar of Prosody." In Freeman, Linguistics and Literary Style 427-47.

Benrabah, Nadia. "Rhythm Through the Ages: Towards a Tentative Definition." Revue des Langues 10 (1992): 79-90.

Bertinetto, P. M. Ritmo e modelli ritmici. Turin: Rosemberg, 1973.

Bonheim, Helmut. Literary Systematics. Cambridge: Brewer, 1990.*

Boulton, Marjorie. The Anatomy of Poetry. London: Routledge, 1965.

Brooks, Cleanth, and Robert Penn Warren, eds. Conversations on the Craft of Verse. (Pamphlet and tape).

Carper, Thomas, and Derek Attridge. Meter and Meaning. New York: Routledge, 2003.

Chatman, Seymour. "Comparing Metrical Styles." In Sebeok 149-72.

_____. "The Components of English Meter." In Freeman, Linguistics and Literary Style 309-35.

_____. A Theory of Meter. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.

_____. "Ritmo, metro, esecuzione.' In Cremante and Pazzaglia 1972. 99-108.

Clark, Arthur Melville. Studies in Literary Modes. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1946.

Classe, A. The Rhythm of English Prose. Darby (PA): Arden Library,1978.

Couper-Kuhlen, E. An Introduction to English Prosody. London: Arnold, 1986.

Cowl, R. P. "Metre and Versification." In Cowl, The Theory of Poetry in England. London: Macmillan, 1914. 224-62.

Creaser, John. "A Zest for Artifice." European English Messenger 5.2 (Autumn 1996): 20-27.* (Metrics).

Cremante, R., and M. Pazzaglia. La Metrica. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1972.

Cummings, D. W. "Towards a Theory of Prosodic Analysis for English Metrical Verse." DA 27 (1966): 177A.

Cureton, Richard. "Rhythm: A Multi-Level Analysis." Style 19 (1985): 242-57.

_____. Rhythmic Phrasing in English Verse. Harlow (Essex): Longman, 1992.

_____. "The Auditory Imagination and the Music of Poetry." In Twentieth Century Poetry: From Text to Context. Ed. Peter Verdonk. London: Routledge, 1993. 68-86.

Dale, A. M. "Stichos and Stanza." In Dale, Collected Papers (1969).

Domínguez Caparrós, José. "Los conceptos de modelo y ejemplo de verso, y de ejecución." Epos 4 (1988): 241-58.

_____. "La métrica y los estudios literarios." Epos 8 (1992): 245-60.

_____. Métrica española. Madrid, 1993.

Drury, Martin. "XXI. Apéndice de autores y obras. Apéndice de métrica." In Historia de la Literatura Clásica (Cambridge University), I: Literatura Griega. Ed. P. E. Easterling and B. M. W. Knox. Madrid: Gredos, 1990.*

_____. "Apéndice métrico." In Historia de la literatura clásica (Cambridge University) II: Literatura latina. Ed. E. J. Kenney and W. V. Clausen. Madrid: Gredos, 1989. 995-98.*

Duffell, Martin J. "The Italian Line in English after Chaucer." Language and Literature 11.4 (2002): 291-305.*

Eikhenbaum, Boris. "El principio melódico del verso." In Antología del formalismo ruso y el grupo de Bajtín. Vol. II: Semiótica del discurso y posformalismo bajtiniano. Ed. Emil Volek. Madrid: Fundamentos, 1995. 37-42.*

Eliot, T. S. "Reflections on vers libre." In Eliot, To Criticize the Critic. London: Faber, 1965. 183-189.

Elwert, Th. Traité de versification française. Paris: Klincksieck, 1965.

Fabb, Nigel. "The Metres of 'Dover Beach'." Language and Literature 11.2 (May 2002): 99-117.*

Fitch, J. G. Seneca's Anapaests. Atlanta (GA), 1987.

Fowler, Roger. "'Prose Rhythm' and Metre." In Essays on Style and Language. Ed. R. Fowler. London: Routledge, 1966. 82-99.

_____. "What is Metrical Analysis?" Anglia 86 (1968): 280-320. Rpt. in The Languages of Literature.

Fraser, G. S. Metre, Rhyme and Free Verse. (The Critical Idiom). London: Methuen, 1970.

Freeman, Donald C. "On the Primes of Metrical Style." In Freeman, Linguistics and Literary Style 448-91.

_____. ed. Linguistics and Literary Style. New York: Holt, 1970.

Fussell, Paul. Theory of Prosody in Eighteenth-Century England. Hamden (CT): Shoe String Press, 1966.

_____. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. Rev. ed. New York: Random House, 1979.

Gasparov, M. L. A History of European Versification. Ed. and trans. G. S. Smith et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Gates, Rosemary L. "T.S. Eliot's Prosody and the Free Verse Tradition: Restricting Whitman's 'Free Growth of Metrical Laws'." Poetics Today 11.3 (1990): 547-578.*

_____. "Interplay of Theory and Method: directions in Stylistics and Metrics." Poetics Today 11.3 (1990): 689-694.*

Geninasca, Jacques. "Fragmentación convencional y significación." In Ensayos de semiótica poética. Ed. A. J. Greimas. Barcelona: Planeta, 1976. 61-82.*

Giegerich, H. Metrical Phonology and Phonological Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985.

Gómez Lara, Manuel J., and Juan A. Prieto Pablos. "Prosodic Analysis." In Gómez Lara and Prieto Pablos, The Ways of the Word. Huelva: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Huelva, 1994. 66-110.

Greimas, A. J., et al. Ensayos de semiótica poética. Barcelona: Planeta. Trans. of Essais de sémiotique poétique. Paris: Larousse, 1972.

Gross, H. Sound and Form in Modern Poetry. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1964.

_____. The Structure of Verse: Modern Essays on Prosody. New York: Ecco Press, 1980.

Halle, M., and S. J. Keyser. English Stress: Its Form, its Growth, and its Role in Verse. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.

Hamer, Enid. The Metres of English Poetry. London: Methuen, 1966.

Harding, D. W. Words into Rhythm: English Speech Rhythm in Verse and Prose. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1976.

Häublein, Ernst. The Stanza. (The Critical Idiom). London: Methuen, 1978.

Hayes, Bruce. "La métrica y la teoría fonológica." In Panorama de la lingüística moderna de la Universidad de Cambridge. Vol. II: Teoría lingüística: Extensiones e implicaciones. Ed. Frederick J. Newmeyer. Madrid: Visor, 1990.

Henríquez Ureña, Pedro. La versificación irregular en la poesía española. Madrid, 1933.

Hobsbaum, Philip. Metre, Rhythm and Verse Form. (The New Critical Idiom). London: Routledge, 1995.

Hogg, R. M., and C. McCully. Metrical Phonology: A Coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985.

Hough, Graham. "Prose, Verse and Poetry." In Hough, An Essay on Criticism. London: Duckworth, 1966. 97-104.*

Hrushovski, Benjamin. "On Free Rhythms in English Poetry." In Sebeok 173-90.

_____. "I ritmi liberi moderni." In R. Cremante and M. Pazzaglia 1972. 169-76.

Jakobson, Roman. "Los problemas fundamentales de la versología." In Antología del formalismo ruso y el grupo de Bajtín. Vol. II: Semiótica del discurso y posformalismo bajtiniano. Ed. Emil Volek. Madrid: Fundamentos, 1995. 43-62.*

Johnson, Barbara. "Poetry and Syntax: What the Gypsy Knew." (Mallarmé). In Johnson, The Critical Difference. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1985. 67-76.

Kager, René, Harry van der Hulst and Wim Zonneveld. The Prosody-Morphology Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.

Kiparsky, P., and G. Youmans, eds. Rhythm and Meter. Vol. 1 of Phonetics and Phonology. San Diego: Academic Press, 1989.

Lanz, Henry. Physical Basis of Rime. Stanford UP, 1931.

Lázaro Carreter, Fernando. "Función poética y verso libre." In Homenaje a Francisco Yndurain. Foreword by Antonio Beltrán. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 1972. 201-16.*

_____. "Función poética y verso libre." In Lázaro, Estudios de poética (La obra en sí). 1976. Madrid: Taurus, 1979. 51-62.*

_____. "La Poética del Arte mayor castellano." In Lázaro, Estudios de poética (La obra en sí). 1976. Madrid: Taurus, 1979. 75-112.*

Leech, Geoffrey N. A Linguistic Guide to English Poetry. London: Longman, 1969.

_____. "Metre." In The Language and Literature Reader. Ed. Ronald Carter and Peter Stockwell. Abingdon (UK) Routledge, 2008.*

Lewis, C. S. "The Alliterative Metre." In Lewis, Rehabilitations and Other Essays. London: Oxford UP, 1939. 117-32.*

Lillo, Antonio. "La rima en los préstamos del argot inglés contemporáneo." Estudios Ingleses de la Universidad Complutense 3 (1995): 173-86.*

López García, A., et al. Lecciones de Retórica y Métrica. Valencia: Lindes, 1981.

Lote, G. Histoire du vers français. 3 vols. Geneva: Slatkine, 1975.

Lotz, John. "Metric Typology." In Style in Language. Ed. T. A. Sebeok. Cambridge (MA): M. I. T. Press, 1960. 135-48.

Malof, Joseph. A Manual of English Meters. Indiana UP, 1970.

Mari, Giovanni. I trattati medievali di ritmica latina. Milan: Hoepli, 1899.

Marina Sáez, Rosa Mª. "La versificación anapéstica según los gramáticos latinos: cuestiones métricas y literarias." In Otivm cvm dignitate: Estudios en homenaje al profesor José Javier Iso Echegoyen. Ed. J. A. Beltrán et al. (Monografías de Filología Latina, 16). Zaragoza: Universidad de Zaragoza, 2013. 111-18.*

Mazaylerat. Eléments de métrique française. Paris: Armand Colin, 1974.

Mellmann, Katja. "Die metrische Gestalt. Mit Überlegungen zur Sinnfälligkeit des Viertakters." Journal of Literary Theory 2.2 (2008): 251-70.*



Menéndez Pelayo, Marcelino. "Noticias para la historia de nuestra métrica (Sobre una nueva especie de versos castellanos)." 1875. In Menéndez Pelayo, Antología de estudios y discursos literarios. Ed. Mario Crespo López. Madrid: Cátedra, 2009. 113-46.*

Meschonnic, Henri. "Rhyme and Life." Critical Inquiry 15 (1988): 90-107.

Monelle, Raymond. "Music Notation and the Poetic Foot." Comparative Literature 41.3 (Summer 1989): 252-69.*

Mott, Brian. "Assimilation and the Foot." In Fifty Years of English Studies in Spain […] Actas del XXVI Congreso de AEDEAN, ed. Ignacio Palacios et al. Santiago de Compostela: U de Santiago de Compostela, 2003. 617-22.*

Mukarovsky, Jan. "The Connection between the Prosodic Line and Word Order in Czech Verse." In A Prague School Reader on Esthetics, Literary Structure, and Style. Ed. and trans. Paul L. Garvin. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown UP, 1964. 113-32.*

_____. "Intonation as the Basic Factor of Poetic Rhythm." In Mukarovsky, The Word and Verbal Art:. New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. 116-33.*

Nabokov, Vladimir. Notes on prosody, and Abram Gannibal; from the Commentary to the author's translation of Pushkin's Eugene Onegin. (Bollingen series, 72) Princeton (NJ): Princeton UP, [c1964].

Navarro Tomás, T. Métrica española. New York: Las Américas, 1966.

Paraíso, Isabel. "Cláusulas: Entre 1 y 7 sílabas." In Teoría y análisis de los discursos literarios: Estudios en homenaje al profesor Ricardo Senabre Sempere. Ed. S. Crespo et al. Salamanca: U de Extremadura / Ediciones U de Salamanca, 2009. 271-79.* (Metrical feet).

Patrick, J. M., et al., eds. Style, Rhetoric and Rhythm. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1966.

Paz, Octavio. "Verso y prosa." In Paz, El arco y la lira. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores, 1999. 93-124.*

Pérez Fernández, José María. "Contention and Continuity: The Concept of Time in Metrical Studies and Poetics." Atlantis 22.2 (Dec. 2000): 137-50.*

Quilis, Antonio. Métrica española. 4ª ed. Madrid: Alcalá, 1978.

Quiller-Couch, Arthur (Sir). "On the Difference between Verse and Prose." In Quiller-Couch, On the Art of Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1920. 43-62.*

Raven, D. S. Latin Metre: An Introduction. London, 1965.

Richards, I. A. "Rhythm and Metres." In Richards, Principles of Literary Criticism.  1924. London: Routledge, 1967. 103-12.

Romains, Jules, and Jules Chennevière. Petit traité de versification. 1923.

Russom, Geoffrey. "Word and Foot in Beowulf." Style 21 (1987): 387-99.

_____. Old English Meter and Linguistic Theory. 1987.

Rylands, George. "Metre and Sound in Poetry." 1928. Select. in The Language of Literature. Ed. Norman Page. London: Macmillan, 1984. 68-71.*

Saavedra Molina, Julio. Los hexámetros castellanos y en particular los de Rubén Darío. Santiago de Chile, 1935.

Saintsbury, George "18. The Prosody of Old and Middle English." In From the Beginnings to the Cycle of Romance. Vol. 1 (English) of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. Ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller. Online at Bartleby.com



_____. "13. Prosody from Chaucer to Spenser." In The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, 3: English: Renascence and Reformation. Ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller. New York: Putnam, 1907-21. Online at Bartleby.com, 2000.* (1. The prosody of the fourteenth century. 2. Piers Plowman. 3. The staple of English poetry. 4. Chaucer and his successors. 5. "Doggerel." 6. The influence of music. 7. Wyatt and Surrey. 8. Sackville. 9 The drama. 10. The Shepheard's Calender. 11. Spenser's Mission).



_____. A History of English Prosody. 3 vols. New York: Russell and Russell, 1961.

Sapir, Edward. "The Musical Foundations of Verse." Journal of English and Germanic Philology 20.2.

Schultz, H. Vom Rhytmus der modernen Lyrik. Munich: C. Hauser, 1970.

Schwartz, E. "Rhythm and 'Exercises in Abstraction'." PMLA 77.5 (1962): 668-79.

Scott, Clive. "The Prose Poem and Free Verse." In Modernism. Ed. Malcolm Bradbury and James McFarlane. 1976. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991. 349-68.*

_____. Vers Libre: The Emergence of Free Verse in France, 1886-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP: 1990.

_____. Reading the Rhythm: The Poetics of French Free Verse, 1910-1930. Oxford, 1993.

Sebeok, Thomas, ed. Style in Language. Cambridge (MA): M. I. T. Press, 1960.

Shapiro, K., and R. Beum. "Metro, ritmo, espressività." In R. Cremante and M. Pazzaglia 1972. 109-16.

Shapiro, Michael. "The Meaning of Meter." In Shapiro, The Sense of Form in Literature and Language. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1998. 143-56.*

Shapiro, Michael, and Marianne Shapiro. "The Meaning of Meter." In The Sense of Form in Literature and Language. 2nd ed. by Michael and Marianne Shapiro. California: Scotts Valley, 2009. 259-78.*

Short, R. W. "The Metrical Theory and Practice of Thomas Campion." PMLA 59 (1944): 1003-18.

Silkin, Jon.The Life of Metrical and Free Verse in Twentieth-Century Poetry. Basingstoke: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's, 1997.*

Smith, Alexander. "The Philosophy of Poetry." Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 38 (July-December 1835).

Snyder. Hypnotic Poetry.

Soubiran, J. Essai sur la versification dramatique des romains. Sénaire iambique et septénaire trochaïque. Paris, 1988.

Stempel, W. D., ed. Texte der russischen Formalisten, II: Texte zur Theorie des Verses und der poetischen Sprache. Munich, 1972.

Strzelecki, L. De Senecae trimetro iambico quaestiones selectae. Kraków, 1938.

_____. "De rei metricae Annaenae origine quaestiones." Eos 53 (1963): 147-70.

Saintsbury, George "VII. The Prosody of the Nineteenth Century." In The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, vol. XIII (English) The Victorian Age, part One: The Nineteenth Century, II. Ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller. Online at Bartleby.com



Tarlinskaya, Marina. "Meter and Mode: English Iambic Pentameter, Hexameter, and Septameter and Their Period Variations." Style 21 (1987): 400-26.

Todorov, Tzvetan. "Versification." In Oswald Ducrot and Tzvetan Todorov, Dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences du langage.  Paris: Seuil, 1972. 240-9.

_____. "La poésie sans le vers." In Todorov, La Notion de littérature et autres essais. Paris: Seuil, 1987. 66-84.

Tomashevski, Boris. "Sur le vers." In Théorie de la littérature. Ed. T. Todorov. Paris: Seuil, 1965. 154-169. Trans. from O stixe. Leningrad: Priboi, 1929.

_____. "Métrica compárada." In Tomashevksi, Teoría de la literatura. Madrid: Akal, 1982. 103-76.

_____. "Verso y ritmo." In Antología del formalismo ruso y el grupo de Bajtín. Vol. II: Semiótica del discurso y posformalismo bajtiniano. Ed. Emil Volek. Madrid: Fundamentos, 1995. 99-112.*

Torre, Esteban. Fundamentos de Poética española. Sevilla: Alfar, 1986.

_____. El ritmo del verso. Murcia: U de Murcia, 1999.

_____. Métrica española comparada. U de Sevilla, 2000.

Tsur, Reuven. "Rhyme and Cognitive Poetics." Poetics Today 17 (1996): 55-87.

Turner, Frederick. "The Neutral Lyre: Poetic Meter: The Brain, and Time." In Turner, Natural Classicism. Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1985.

Tynianov, Iuri. Problema stikhotvornogo iazyka. Leningrad, 1924.

_____. The Problem of Verse Language. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1981.

_____. Il problema del linguaggio poetico. Milan: Mondadori, 1968.

_____. "Rhythm as the Constructive Factor of Verse." 1924. In Readings in Russian Poetics: Formalist and Structuralist Views. Ed. Ladislav Matejka and Krystyna Pomorska. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1978. 125-35.

_____. "Ritmo como factor constructivo del verso." In Antología del formalismo ruso y el grupo de Bajtín. Vol. II: Semiótica del discurso y posformalismo bajtiniano. Ed. Emil Volek. Madrid: Fundamentos, 1995. 63-86.*

Valesio, P. "On Poetics and Metrical Theory." Poetics 2 (1971): 123-40.

Vennemann, Theo, ed. Silben, Segmente, Akzente. Referate zur Wort-, Satz- und Versphonologie anläßlich der vierten Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft, Köln, 2.-4. März 1982. (Linguistische Arbeiten 126). Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1982. [Published in 1983].

Watson, George. "Verse and Prose." 1969. Select. in The Language of Literature. Ed. Norman Page. London: Macmillan, 1984. 56-59.*

Wellek, René, and Austin Warren. "Euphony, Rhythm, and Metre." In Wellek and Warren, Theory of Literature. 1949. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963. 158-73.

White, J. W. The Verse of Greek Comedy. 1912.

Williams, William Carlos. "On Measure—Statement for Cid Corman." In Strong Words: Modern Poets on Modern Poetry. Ed. W. N. Herbert and Matthew Hollis. Tarset (Northumberland): Bloodaxe Books, 2000. 83-86.*

Wilson, Edmund. "Is Verse a Dying Technique?" In Wilson, The Triple Thinkers. 1938. London: Lehmann, 1952. 22-36.

Wilson, Katharine M. The Real Rhythm in English Poetry.

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