|A GRAMMAR OF
NEW TESTAMENT GREEK
JAMES HOPE MOULTON
M.A. (CANTAB.), D.LIT. (LOND.)
LATE FELLOW OF KING'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE
GREENWOOD PROFESSOR OF HELLENISTIC GREEK AND INDO-EUROPEAN
PHILOLOGY IN THE VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER
TUTOR IN NEW TESTAMENT LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
WESLEYAN COLLEGE, DIDSBURY
WITH CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS
Digitized by Ted Hildebrandt, Gordon College, Wenham, MA
EDINBURGH: T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET
IN PIAM MEMORIAM
LABORVM HERES DEDICO
THE call for a second edition of this work within six or seven
months of its first appearance gives me a welcome opportunity
of making a good many corrections and additions, without
altering in any way its general plan. Of the scope of these new
features I shall have something to say later; at this point I
have to explain the title-page, from which certain words have
disappeared, not without great reluctance on my part. The
statement in the first edition that the book was "based on
W. F. Moulton's edition of G. B. Winer's Grammar," claimed
for it connexion with a work which for thirty-five years had
been in constant use among New Testament students in this
country and elsewhere. I should hardly have yielded this
statement for excision, had not the suggestion come from one
whose motives for retaining it are only less strong than my
own. Sir John Clark, whose kindness throughout the progress
of this work it is a special pleasure to acknowledge on such
an opportunity, advised me that misapprehension was fre-
quently occurring with those whose knowledge of this book
was limited to the title. Since the present volume is entirely
new, and does not in any way follow the lines of its great
predecessor it seems better to confine the history of the
undertaking to the Preface, and take sole responsibility. I
have unhappily no means of divining what judgement either
Winer or his editor would have passed on my doctrines; and
it is therefore, perhaps, due to Pietat that I should drop what
Pietat mainly prompted.
It is now forty years since my father, to whose memory
this book is dedicated, was invited by Messrs T. & T. Clark
to translate and edit G. B. Winer's epoch-making Grammatik
des neutestamentliehen Spraehidioms. The proposal originated
with Bishop Ellicott, afterwards Chairman of the New Testa-
ment Revision Company, and the last survivor of a band of
workers who, while the following pages were in the press,
became united once more. Dr Ellicott had been in corre-
spondence on biblical matters with the young Assistant Tutor
at the Wesleyan Theological College, Richmond; and his
estimate of his powers was shown first by the proposal as to
Winer, and not long after by the Bishop's large use of my
father's advice in selecting new members of the Revision
Company. Mr Moulton took his place in the Jerusalem
Chamber in 1870, the youngest member of the Company;
and in the same year his edition of Winer appeared. My
brother's Life of our father (Isbister, 1899) gives an account
of its reception. It would not be seemly for me to enlarge
on its merits, and it would be as superfluous as unbecoming.
I will only allow myself the satisfaction of quoting a few
words from one who may well be called the greatest New
Testament scholar this country has seen for generations. In
giving his Cambridge students a short list of reference books,
Dr Hort said (Romans and Ephesians, p. 71):—
Winer's Grammar of the New Testament, as translated
and enlarged by Dr Moulton, stands far above every
other for this purpose. It does not need many minutes
to learn the ready use of the admirable indices, of
passages and of subjects: and when the book is con-
sulted in this manner, its extremely useful contents
become in most cases readily accessible. Dr Moulton's
references to the notes of the best recent English com-
mentaries are a helpful addition.
In 1875 Dr Moulton was transferred to Cambridge,
charged by his Church with the heavy task of building up
from the foundation a great Public School. What time a
Head Master could spare to scholarship was for many years
almost entirely pledged to the New Testament and Apocrypha
Revision. Naturally it was not possible to do much to his
Grammar when the second edition was called for in 1877.
The third edition, five years later, was even less delayed for
the incorporation of new matter; and the book stands now,
in all essential points, just as it first came from its author's
pen. Meanwhile the conviction was growing that the next
edition must be a new book. Winer's own last edition,
though far from antiquated, was growing decidedly old;
its jubilee is in fact celebrated by its English descendant
of to-day. The very thoroughness of Winer's work had made
useless for the modern student many a disquisition against
grammatical heresies which no one would now wish to drag
from the lumber-room. The literature to which Winer
appealed was largely buried in inaccessible foreign periodicals.
And as the reputation of his editor grew, men asked for a
more compact, better arranged, more up-to-date volume, in
which the ripest and most modern work should no longer be
stowed away in compressed notes at the foot of the page.
Had time and strength permitted, Dr Moulton would have
consulted his most cherished wish by returning to the work
of his youth and rewriting his Grammar as an independent
book. But "wisest Fate said No." He chose his junior col-
league, to whom he had given, at first as his pupil, and
afterwards during years of University training and colleague-
ship in teaching, an insight into his methods and principles,
and at least an eager enthusiasm for the subject to which he
had devoted his own life. But not a page of the new book
was written when, in February 1898, "God's finger touched
him, and he slept."
Since heredity does not suffice to make a grammarian,
and there are many roads by which a student of New Testa-
ment language may come to his task, I must add a word
to explain in what special directions this book may perhaps
contribute to the understanding of the inexhaustible subject
with which it deals. Till four years ago, my own teaching
work scarcely touched the Greek Testament, classics and com-
parative philology claiming the major part of my time. But
I have not felt that this time was ill spent as a prepara-
tion for the teaching of the New Testament. The study of
the Science of Language in general, and especially in the field
of the languages which are nearest of kin to Greek, is well
adapted to provide points of view from which new light may
be shed on the words of Scripture. Theologians, adepts in
criticism, experts in early Christian literature, bring to a task
like this an equipment to which I can make no pretence.
But there are other studies, never more active than now,
which may help the biblical student in unexpected ways.
The life-history of the Greek language has been investi-
gated with minutest care, not only in the age of its glory,
but also throughout the centuries of its supposed senility
and decay. Its syntax has been illuminated by the com-
parative method; and scholars have arisen who have been
willing to desert the masterpieces of literature and trace the
humble development of the Hellenistic vernacular down to
its lineal descendant in the vulgar tongue of the present day.
Biblical scholars cannot study everything, and there are some
of them who have never heard of Brugmann and Thumb.
It may be some service to introduce them to the side-lights
which comparative philology can provide.
But I hope this book may bring to the exegete material
yet more important for his purpose, which might not otherwise
come his way. The immense stores of illustration which have
been opened to us by the discoveries of Egyptian papyri, ac-
cessible to all on their lexical side in the brilliant Bible Studies
of Deissmann, have not hitherto been systematically treated
in their bearing on the grammar of New Testament Greek.
The main purpose of these Prolegomena has accordingly been
to provide a sketch of the language of the New Testament as
it appears to those who have followed Deissmann into a new
field of research. There are many matters of principle need-
ing detailed discussion, and much new illustrative material
from papyri and inscriptions, the presentation of which will, I
hope, be found helpful and suggestive. In the present volume,
therefore, I make no attempt at exhaustiveness, and of ten
omit important subjects on which I have nothing new to say.
By dint of much labour on the indices, I have tried to provide
a partial remedy for the manifold inconveniences of form
which the plan of these pages entails. My reviewers en-
courage me to hope that I have succeeded in one cherished
ambition, that of writing a Grammar which can be read.
The fascination of the Science of Language has possessed me
ever since in boyhood I read Max Muller's incomparable
Lectures; and I have made it my aim to communicate what
I could of this fascination before going on to dry statistics
and formulae. In the second volume I shall try to present
as concisely as I can the systematic facts of Hellenistic acci-
dence and syntax, not in the form of an appendix to a
grammar of classical Greek, but giving the later language
the independent dignity which it deserves. Both Winer
himself and the other older scholars, whom a reviewer thinks
I have unduly neglected, will naturally bulk more largely
than they can do in chapters mainly intended to describe
the most modern work. But the mere citation of authori-
ties, in a handbook designed for practical utility, must
naturally be subordinated to the succinct presentation of
results. There will, I hope, be small danger of my readers'
overlooking my indebtedness to earlier workers, and least
of all that to my primary teacher, whose labours it is
my supreme object to preserve for the benefit of a new
It remains to perform the pleasant duty of acknowledging
varied help which has contributed a large proportion of any-
thing that may be true or useful in this book. It would be
endless were I to name teachers, colleagues, and friends in
Cambridge, to whom through twenty years' residence I con-
tracted debts of those manifold and intangible kinds which
can only be summarised in the most inadequate way: no
Cantab who has lived as long within that home of exact
science and sincere research, will fail to understand what I
fail to express. Next to the Cambridge influences are those
which come from teachers and friends whom I have never
seen, and especially those great German scholars whose labours,
too little assisted by those of other countries, have established
the Science of Language on the firm basis it occupies to-day.
In fields where British scholarship is more on a level with
that of Germany, especially those of biblical exegesis and
of Greek classical lore, I have also done my best to learn
what fellow-workers east of the Rhine contribute to the
common stock. It is to a German professor, working
upon the material of which our own Drs Grenfell and
Hunt have provided so large a proportion, that I owe the
impulse which has produced the chief novelty of my work.
My appreciation of the memorable achievement of Dr Deiss-
mann is expressed in the body of the book; and I must
only add here my grateful acknowledgement of the many
encouragements he has given me in my efforts to glean
after him in the field he has made his own. He has now
crowned them with the all too generous appreciations of
my work which he has contributed to the Theologische
Literaturzeitung and the Theologische Rundschau. Another
great name figures on most of the pages of this book.
The services that Professor Blass has rendered to New
Testament study are already almost equal to those he has
rendered to classical scholarship. I have been frequently
obliged to record a difference of opinion, though never with-
out the inward voice whispering "impar congresses Achilli."
But the freshness of view which this great Hellenist brings
to the subject makes him almost as helpful when he fails
to convince as when he succeeds; and I have learned more
and more from him, the more earnestly I have studied for
myself. The name of another brilliant writer on New
Testament Grammar, Professor Schmiedel, will figure more
constantly in my second volume than my plan allows it to
do in this.
The mention of the books which have been most fre-
quently used, recalls the need of one or two explanations
before closing this Preface. The text which is assumed
throughout is naturally that of Westcott and Hort. The
principles on which it is based, and the minute accuracy with
which they are followed out, seem to allow no alternative to
a grammatical worker, even if the B type of text were held
to be only the result of second century revision. But in
frequently quoting other readings, and especially those which
belong to what Dr Kenyon conveniently calls the d-text,
I follow very readily the precedent of Blass. I need not
say that Mr Geden's Concordance has been in continual
use. I have not felt bound to enter much into questions
of "higher criticism." In the case of the Synoptic Gospels,
the assumption of the "two-source hypothesis" has suggested
a number of grammaticul points of interest. Grammar helps
to rivet closer the links which bind together the writings of
Luke, and those of Paul (though the Pastorals often need
separate treatment): while the Johannine Gospel and Epistles
similarly form a single grammatical entity. Whether the
remaining Books add seven or nine to the tale of separate
authors, does not concern us here; for the Apocalypse,
1 Peter and 2 Peter must be treated individually as much
as Hebrews, whether the traditional authorship be accepted
Last come the specific acknowledgements of most generous
and welcome help received directly in the preparation of this
volume. I count myself fortunate indeed in that three
scholars of the first rank in different lines of study have
read my proofs through, and helped me with invaluable
encouragement and advice. It is only due to them that I
should claim the sole responsibility for errors which I may
have failed to escape, in spite of their watchfulness on my
behalf. Two of them are old friends with whom I have
taken counsel for many years. Dr G. G. Findlay has gone
over my work with minute care, and has saved me from
many a loose and ambiguous statement, besides giving me the
fruit of his profound and accurate exegesis, which students
of his works on St. Paul's Epistles know well. Dr Bendel
Harris has brought me fresh lights from other points of
view and I have been particularly glad of criticism from a
specialist in Syriac, who speaks with authority on matters
which take a prominent place in my argument. The third
name is that of Professor Albert Thumb, of Marburg. The
kindness of this great scholar, in examining so carefully the
work of one who is still a]gnoou
be adequately acknowledged here. Nearly every page of my
book owes its debt either to his writings or to the criticisms
and suggestions with which he has favoured me. At least
twice he has called my attention to important articles in
English which I had overlooked and in my illustrations
from Modern Greek I have felt myself able to venture often
into fields which might have been full of pitfalls, had I not
been secure in his expert guidance. Finally, in the necessary
drudgery of index-making I have had welcome aid at home.
By drawing up the index of Scripture quotations, my mother
has done for me what she did for my father nearly forty years
ago. My brother, the Rev. W. Fiddian Moulton, M.A., has
spared time from a busy pastor's life to make me the Greek
index. To all these who have helped me so freely, and to
many others whose encouragement and counsel has been a
constant stimulus—I would mention especially my Man-
chester colleagues, Dr R. W. Moss and Professor A. S. Peake
—I tender my heartfelt thanks.
The new features of this edition are necessarily confined
within narrow range. The Additional Notes are suggested
by my own reading or by suggestions from various reviewers
and correspondents, whose kindness I gratefully acknowledge.
A new lecture by Professor Thumb, and reviews by such
scholars as Dr Marcus Dods, Dr H. A. A. Kennedy, and Dr
Souter, have naturally provided more material than I can at
present use. My special thanks are due to Mr H. Scott, of
Oxton, Birkenhead, who went over the index of texts and
two or three complicated numerical computations in the body
of the book, and sent me unsolicited some corrections and
additions, for which the reader will add his gratitude to
mine. As far as was possible, the numerous additions to the
Indices have been worked in at their place; but some pages
of Addenda have been necessary, which will not, I hope,
seriously inconvenience the reader. The unbroken kindness of
my reviewers makes it needless for me to reply to criticisms
here. I am tempted to enlarge upon one or two remarks in the
learned and helpful Athenaeum review, but will confine myself
to a comment on the "awkward results " which the writer
anticipates from the evidence of the papyri as set forth in my
work. My Prolegomena, he says, "really prove that there can
be no grammar of New Testament Greek, and that the grammar
of the Greek in the New Testament is one and the same with
the grammar of the 'common Greek' of the papyri." I agree
with everything except the "awkwardness" of this result
for me. To call this book a Grammar of the 'Common'
Greek, and enlarge it by including phenomena which do
not happen to be represented in the New Testament, would
certainly be more scientific. But the practical advantages of
confining attention to what concerns the grammatical inter-
pretation of a Book of unique importance, written in a language
which has absolutely no other literature worthy of the name,
need hardly be laboured here, and this foreword is already
long enough. I am as conscious as ever of the shortcomings
of this book when placed in the succession of, one which has
so many associations of learning and industry, of caution and
flawless accuracy. But I hope that its many deficiencies may
NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION. xv
not prevent it from leading its readers nearer to the meaning
of the great literature which it strives to interpret. The
new tool is certain not to be all its maker fondly wished it
to be; but from a vein so rich in treasure even the poorest
instrument can hardly fail to bring out nuggets of pure gold.
J. H. M.
DIDSBURY COLLEGE, Avg. 13, 1906.
NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
As it is not yet three years since this book first appeared,
I am spared the necessity of introducing very drastic change.
Several new collections of papyri have been published, and
other fresh material, of which I should have liked to avail
myself more fully. But the alterations and additions have
been limited by my wish not to disturb the pagination.
Within this limit, however, I have managed to bring in a
large number of small changes-removing obscurities, correcting
mistakes, or registering a change of opinion; while, by the use
of blank spaces, or the cutting down of superfluities, I have
added very many fresh references. For the convenience of
readers who possess former editions, I add below1 a note of
the pages on which changes or additions occur, other than
those that are quite trifling. No small proportion of my
time has been given to the Indices. Experience has shown
that I had planned the Greek Index on too small a scale.
In the expansion of this Index, as also for the correction of
many statistics in the body of the book, I have again to
acknowledge with hearty thanks the generous help of Mr
1 See pp. xii., xx.-xxiii., 4, 7, 8, 10, 13-17, 19, 21, 26, 27, 29, 36, 38, 40,
41. 43, 45-50, 52-56, 64, 65, 67-69, 76-81, 86, 87, 93, 95-99, 101, 105, 107,
110, 113-115, 117, 119-121, 123, 125, 129, 130, 134, 135, 144, 145, 150, 156, 159,
161-163, 167, 168, 174, 176-179, 181, 185, 187, 188, 191;193-196, 198, 200, 204,
205, 214, 215, 223-225, 227-231, 234-237, 239-211, 213-249. Pp. 260-265
have many alterations, Index iii a few. Index ii and the Addenda are new.
xvi NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
H. Scott. To the kindness of many reviewers and corre-
spondents I must make a general acknowledgement for the
help they have given me. One debt of this kind, however,
I could not omit to mention, due to a learned member of
my own College, who is working in the same field. The
Accidence of Mr H. St. J. Thackeray's Septuagint Grammar
is now happily far advanced towards publication; and I have
had the privilege of reading it in MS, to my own great
profit. I only wish I could have succeeded in my endeavour
to provide ere now for my kind critics an instalment of the
systematic grammar to which this volume is intended to be
an introduction. It is small comfort that Prof. Schmiedel
is still in the middle of the sentence where he left off ten
years ago. The irreparable loss that Prof. Blass's death
inflicts on our studies makes me more than ever wishful
that Dr Schmiedel and his new coadjutor may not keep us
Some important fields which I might have entered have
been pointed out by Prof. S. Dickey, in the Princeton Theological
Review for Jan. 1908, p. 151. Happily, I need not be
exhaustive in Prolegomena, though the temptation to rove
further is very strong. There is only one topic on which
I feel it essential to enlarge at present, touching as it does
my central position, that the New Testament was written
in the normal Koinh< of the Empire, except for certain parts
where over-literal translation from Semitic originals affected
its quality. I must not here defend afresh the general thesis
against attacks like that of Messrs Conybeare and Stock,
delivered in advance in their excellent Selections from the
Septuagint, p. 22 (1905), or Dr Nestle's review of my book in
the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift for December 8, 1906.
There are many points in this learned and suggestive review
to which I hope to recur before long. But there is one new
line essayed by some leading critics of Deissmannism—if
I may coin a word on an obvious analogy—which claims
a few words here. In the first additional note appended to
my second edition (p. 242, below), I referred to the evidence
for a large Aramaic-speaking Jewish population in Egypt, and
anticipated the possibility that "Hebraists" might interpret
our parallels from the papyri as Aramaisms of home growth,
NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION. xvii
As this argument had not yet been advanced, I did not offer
an answer. But simultaneously Prof. Swete was bringing out
his monumental Commentary on the Apocalypse; and I
found on p. cxx that the veteran editor of the LXX was dis-
posed to take this very line. The late Dr H. A. Redpath also
wrote to me, referring to an article of his own in the American
Journal of Theology for January 1903, pp. 10 f., which I should
not have overlooked. With two such authorities to support
this suggestion, I cannot of course leave the matter as it
stands in the note referred to. Fuller discussion I must defer,
but I may point out that our case does not rest on the papyri
alone. Let it be granted, for the sake of argument, that we
have no right to delete from the list of Hebraisms uses for
which we can only quote Egyptian parallels, such as the use
of meta< referred to on p. 246. There will still remain a
multitude of uses in which we can support the papyri from
vernacular inscriptions of different countries, without encoun-
tering any probability of Jewish influence. Take, for example,
the case of instrumental e]n, where the Hebrew b; has naturally
been recognised by most scholars in the past. I have asserted
(p. 12) that Ptolemaic exx. of e]n maxaial.) rescue
Paul's e]n r[a
Dr Findlay (EGT on 1 Co 4 21) cited Lucian, Dial. Mort.
xxiii. 3. Now let us suppose that the Egyptian official who
wrote Tb P 16 was unconsciously using an idiom of the
Ghetto, and that Lucian's Syrian origin—credat Iudaeus.
was peeping out in a reminiscence of the nursery. We shall
still be able to cite examples of the reckless extension
of e]n in Hellenistic of other countries; and we shall find
that the roots of this particular extension go down deep into
classical uses loquendi: see the quotations in Kuhner-Gerth
i. 465, and especially note the Homeric e]n o]fqalmoi?si
Fide kaiIl. xxiv. 38),
which are quite near enough to explain the development.
That some Biblical uses of e]n go beyond even the generous
limits of Hellenistic usage, neither Deissmann nor I seek to
deny (see p. 104). But evidence accumulates to forbid my
allowing Semitisin as a vera causa for the mass of Biblical
instances of e]n in senses which make the Atticist stare and
gasp. And on the general question I confess myself uncon-
xviii NOTE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
vinced that Egyptian Greek differs materially from that
current in the Empire as a whole, or that the large Jewish
population left their stamp on the language of Greeks or
bilingual Egyptians in the Delta, any more than the perhaps
equally large proportion of Jews in Manchester affects the
speech of our Lancashire working men. There is another line
of argument which I personally believe to be sound, but I do
not press it here—the dogma of Thumb (see pp. 17 n. and
94 below), that a usage native in Modern Greek is ipso facto
no Semitism. It has been pressed by Psichari in his valuable
Essai sur le grec de la Septante (1908). But I have already
overstepped the limits of a Preface, and will only express
the earnest hope that the modest results of a laborious
revision may make this book more helpful to the great
company of Biblical students whom it is my ambition to
J. H. M.
DIDSBURY COLLEGE, Nov. 6, 1908.
I. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 1
II. HISTORY OF THE "COMMON" GREEK 22
III. NOTES ON THE ACCIDENCE 42
IV. SYNTAX: THE NOUN 57
V. ADJECTIVES, PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS 77
VI. THE VERB: TENSES AND MODES OF ACTION 108
VII. THE VERB: VOICE 152
VIII. THE VERB: THE MOODS 164
IX. THE INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE 202
ADDITIONAL NOTES 233
ADDITIONAL NOTES TO THE SECOND EDITION 242
I. INDEX TO QUOTATIONS 250
II. INDEX OF GREEK WORDS AND FORMS 266
III. INDEX OF SUBJECTS 278
ADDENDA TO INDICES 290
ABBREVIATIONS for the names of Books of Scripture will explain them-
selves. In the OT and Apocrypha the names of the Books follow the
English RV (except Ca for Song of Songs), as also do the numbers for
chapter and verse: the LXX numbering, where it differs, is added within
Centuries are denoted iii/13 B.C., ii/A.D., etc., except when an exact date
is given. Where the date may fall within wider limits, the notation
is ii/i B.C., iv/v A.D., etc. Where papyri or inscriptions are not dated,
it may generally be taken that no date is given by the editor.
The abbreviations for papyri and inscriptions are given in Index I (c)
and (d), pp. 251 ff. below, with the full titles of the collections quoted.
The ordinary abbreviations for MSS, Versions, and patristic writers
are used in textual notes.
Other abbreviations will, it is hoped, need no explanation: perhaps
MGr for Modern Greek should be mentioned. It should be observed
that references are to pages, unless otherwise stated: papyri and inscrip-
tions are generally cited by number. In all these documents the usual
notation is followed, and the original spelling preserved.
Abbott JG= Johannine Grammar, by E. A. Abbott. London 1906.
Abbott—see Index I (e) iii.
AJP=American Journal of Philology, ed. B. L. Gildersleeve, Baltimore
Archiv—see Index I (c).
Audollent—see Index I (c).
BCH— see Index I (c).
Blass= Grammar of NT Greek, by F. Blass. Second English edition,
tr. H. St J. Thackeray, London 1905. (This differs from ed. 1 only
by the addition of pp. 306-333.) Sometimes the reference is to notes
in Blass's Acta Apostolorum (Gottingen 1895): the context will
make it clear.
Brugmann Dist.= Die distributiven u. d. kollektiven Numeralia der idg.
Sprachen, by K. Brugmann. (Abhandl. d. K. S. Ges. d. Wiss., xxv. v,
Burton MT= New Testament Moods and Tenses, by E. D. Burton.
Second edition, Edinburgh 1894.
Buttmann= Grammar of New Testament Greek, by A. Buttmaun.
English edition by J. H. Thayer, Andover 1876.
BZ= Byzantinische Zeitschrift, ed. K. Krumbacher, Leipzig 1892
Cauer—see Index I (c).
CGT= Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges.
CR= Classical Review (London 1887 ff.). Especially reference is made
to the writer's collection of forms and syntactical examples from the
papyri, in CR xv. 31-38 and 434-442 (Feb. and Dec. 1901), and
xviii. 106-112 and 151-155 (March and April 1904—to be continued).
CQ = Classical Quarterly. London 1907 f.
Dalman Words= The Words of Jesus, by G. Dalman. English edition,
tr. D. M. Kay, Edinburgh 1902.
Dalman Gramm.= Grammatik des judisch-palastinischen Aramaisch, by
G. Dalman, Leipzig 1894.
DB=Dictionary of the Bible, edited by J. Hastings. 5 vols., Edinburgh
Deissmann BS= Bible Studies, by G. A. Deissmann. English edition,
including Bibelstudien and Neue Bibelstudien, tr. A. Grieve, Edinburgh
Deissmann In Christo =Die Die neutestamentliche Formel "in Christo Jesu,"
by G. A. Deissmann, Marburg 1892.
Delbruck Grundr.= Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der
indogermanischen Sprachen, by K. Brugmann and B. Delbruck:
Dritter Band, Vergleichende Syntax, by Delbruck, Strassburg 1893-
1900. (References to Brugmann's part, on phonology and morphology,
are given to his own abridgement, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik,
1904, which has also an abridged Comparative Syntax.)
Dieterich Unters.=Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der griechischen
Sprache, von der hellenistischen Zeit bis zum 10. Jahrh. n. Chr., by
K. Dieterich, Leipzig 1898.
DLZ= Deutsche Literaturzeitung, Leipzig.
EB=Encyclopaedia Biblica, edited by T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black.
4 vols., London 1899-1903.
EGT=Expositor's Greek Testament, edited by W. Robertson Nicoll.
4 vols. (vol. iv. not yet published), London 1897-1903.
Exp B=Expositor's Bible, edited by W. R. Nicoll. 49 vols., London
Expos= The Expositor, edited by W. R. Nicoll. Cited by series, volume,
and page. London 1875 ff.
Exp T= The Expository Times, edited by J. Hastings. Edinburgh 1889 ff.
Gildersleeve Studies= Studies in Honor of Professor Gildersleeve, Baltimore.
Gildersleeve Synt. = Syntax of Classical Greek, by B. L. Gildersleeve and
C. W. E. Miller. Part i, New York 1900.
Giles Manual 2=A Short Manual of Comparative Philology for classical
students, by P. Giles. Second edition, London 1901.
Goodwin MT = Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb, by
W. W. Goodwin. Third edition, London 1889.
Goodwin Greek Gram. = A Greek Grammar, by W. W. Goodwin. London
Grimm-Thayer =Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti, translated and
enlarged by J. H. Thayer, as " A Greek-English Lexicon of the New
Testament." Edinburgh 1886.
Hatzidakis = Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik, by G. N.
Hatzidakis. Leipzig 1892.
Hawkins HS= Howe Synopticce, by J. C. Hawkins. Oxford 1899.
HR= A Concordance to the Septuagint, by E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath.
IMA—see Index I (c).
Indog. Forsch.= Indogermanische Forschungen, edited by K. Brugmann
and. W. Streitberg. Strassburg 1892
Jannaris HG= A Historical Greek Grammar, by A. N. Jannaris. London
JBL =Journal of Biblical Literature. Boston 1881 ff.
JHS—see Index I (c).
JTS =Journal of Theological Studies. London 1900 ff.
Julicher Introd.=Introduction to the New Testament, by A. Julicher.
English edition, tr. by J. P. Ward, London 1904.
Kalker=Quaestiones de elocutione Polybiana, by F. Kaelker. In Leipziger
Studien III.. ii., 1880.
Kuhner 3, or Kuhner-Blass, Kuhner-Gerth =Ausfuhrliche Grammatik der
griechischen Sprache, by R. Kuhner. Third edition, Elementar-und
Formenlehre, by F. Blass. 2 vols., Hannover 1890-2. Satzlehre, by
B. Gerth. 2 vols., 1898, 1904.
Kuhring Praep. = De Praepusitionum Graec. in chards Aegyptiis usu, by
W. Kuhring. Bonn 1906.
KZ=Kuhn’s Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. Berlin and
Gutersloh 1852 ff.
LS=A Greek-English Lexicon, by H. G. Liddell and R. Scott. Eighth
edition, Oxford 1901.
Mayser= Grammatik der gr. Papyri aus der Ptolemilerzeit, by E. Mayser.
Meisterhans 3= Grammatik der attischen Inschriften, by K. Meisterhans.
Third edition by E. Schwyzer (see p. 29 n.), Berlin 1900.
MG=Concordance to the Greek Testament, by W. F. Moulton and A. S.
Geden. Edinburgh 1897.
Milligan-Moulton Commentary on the Gospel of St John, by W. Milligan
and W. F. Moulton. Edinburgh 1898.
Mithraslit.—see Index I (4
Monro HG= Homeric Grammar, by D. B. Monro. Second edition,
Nachmanson=Laute and Formen der Magnetischen Inschriften, by E.
Nachmanson, Upsala 1903.
Ramsay Paul= Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, by W. M. Ramsay
Third edition, London 1897.
Ramsay C. and B.—see Index I (e).
RE 3 = Herzog-Hauck Realencyclopadie. (In progress.) Leipzig.
REGr=Revue des Etudes grecques. Paris 188t ff.
Reinhold=De Graecitate Patrum, by H. Reinhold. Halle 1896.
RhM= Rheinisches Museum. Bonn 1827 ff.
Riddell = A Digest of Platonic Idioms, by J. Riddell (in his edition of
the Apology, Oxford 1867).
Rutherford NP= The New Phrynichus, by W. G. Rutherford, London 1881.
Schanz Beitr.=Beitrage zur historischen Syntax der griechischen Sprache,
edited by M. Schanz. Wurtzburg 1882 ff.
Schmid Attic. = Der Atticismus in seinen Hauptvertretern von Dionysius
von Halikarnass his auf den zweiten Philostratus, by W. Schmid.
4 vols. and Register, Stuttgart 1887-1897.
Schmidt Jos.= De Flavii Josephi elocutione, by W. Schmidt, Leipzig 1893.
Schulze Gr. Lat. =Graeca Latina, by W. Schulze, Gottingen 1901.
Schwyzer Perg.= Grammatik der pergamenischen Inschrif ten, by E.
Schweizer (see p. 29 n.), Berlin 1898.
SH= The Epistle to the Romans, by W. Sanday and A. C. Headlam.
Fifth edition, Edinburgh 1902.
ThLZ=Theologische Literaturzeitung, edited by A. Harnack and E.
Schurer, Leipzig 1876 ff.
Thumb Hellen.= Die griechische Sprache im Zeitalter des Hellenismus,
by A. Thumb, Strassburg 1901.
Thumb Handb.= Handbuch der neugriechischen Volkssprache, by A.
Thumb, Strassburg 1895.
Ti=Novum Testamentum Graece, by C. Tischendorf. Editio octava
critica maior. 2 vols., Leipzig 1869-72. Also vol. iii, by C. R.
Gregory, containing Prolegomena, 1894.
Viereck SG—see Index I (c).
Viteau = Etude sur le grec du Noveau Testament, by J. Viteau. Vol. i,
Le Verbe: Syntaxe des Propositions, Paris 1893; vol. ii, Sujet,
Complement et Attribut, 1896.
Volker = Syntax der griechischen Papyri. I. Der Artikel, by F. Volker,
Munster i. W. 1903.
Votaw= The Use of the Infinitive in Biblical Greek, by C. W. Votaw.
Wellh.=Einleitung in die drei ersten Evangelien, by J. Wellhausen.
WH= The New Testament in the Original Greek, by B. F. Westcott and
F. J. A. Hort. Vol. i, Text (also ed. minor); vol. ii, Introduction.
Cambridge and London 1881; second edition of vol. ii, 1896.
WH App= Appendix to WH, in vol. ii, containing Notes on Select
Readings and on Orthography, etc.
Witk. = Epistulae Privatae Graecae, ed. S. Witkowski. Leipzig 1906.
WM= A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek, regarded as
a sure basis for New Testament Exegesis, by G. B. Winer. Trans-
lated from the German, with large additions and full indices, by
W. F. Moulton. Third edition, Edinburgh 1882.
WS= G. B. Winer's Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidionis.
Eighth edition, newly edited by P. W. Schinieclel, Gottingen 1894 ff.
ZNTW =Zeitschrift fur die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, edited by
E. Preuselien. Giessen 1900
A GRAMMAR OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK.