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Grammar and grammar instruction: selected references


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The International Research Foundation

for English Language Education



GRAMMAR AND GRAMMAR INSTRUCTION: SELECTED REFERENCES

(last updated 2 April 2015)

Aarts, B. (2011). Oxford Modern English grammar. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


Aarts, B., & Burton-Roberts (Eds.). (2008). English syntax and argumentation (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Achard, M. (2008). Teaching construal: Cognitive pedagogical grammar. In P. Robinson & N. C. Ellis (Eds.), Cognitive linguistics, second language acquisition (pp. 432-455). New York, NY: Routledge.
Aikhenvald, A. Y. (2011). The grammaticalization of evidentiality. In H. Narrog & B. Heine (Eds.), Oxford handbook in linguistics (pp. 605-613). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Aikhenvald, A. Y. (2012). Imperatives and commands. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Algeo, J. (2006). British or American? A handbook of word and grammar patterns. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Allen, W. (1995). Living English structure. London, UK: Longman.
Anderwald, L. (2003). Non-standard English and typological principles: The case of negation. In B. Mondorf & G. Rohdenburg (Eds.), Determinants of grammatical variation in English (pp. 504-529). Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
Andrews, S. (2003). ‘Just like instant noodles’: L2 teachers and their beliefs about grammar pedagogy. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 9(4), 351-375.

Azar, B. (1989). Understanding and using English grammar. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.


Azar, B. (2007). Grammar-based teaching: A practitioner’s perspective. TESL-EJ, 11(2), 1-12.

Azar, B. S., & Hagen, S. A. (2006). Basic English grammar (3rd ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman.

Azar, B. S., & Hagen, S. A. (2011). Fundamentals of English grammar. (4th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. & Reynolds, D. W. (1995). The role of lexical aspect in the acquisition of tense and aspect.  TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 107-131.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1997). Another piece of the puzzle: The emergence of the present perfect. Language Learning, 47(3), 375-422.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1998). Narrative structure and lexical aspect: Conspiring factors in second language acquisition of tense-aspect morphology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20(4), 471-508.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1999). From morpheme studies to temporal semantics: Tense-aspect research in SLA. State of the art article. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(3), 341-382.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2002). Analyzing aspect. In R. Salaberry & Y. Shirai (Eds.), Tense-aspect morphology in L2 acquisition (pp. 129-154). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2004). The emergence of grammaticalized future expression in longitudinal production data. In M. Overstreet, S. Rott, B. VanPatten, & J. Williams (Eds.) Form and meaning in second language acquisition (pp. 115-137). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 233-259.
Berk, L. M. (1999). English syntax: From word to discourse. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Berry, R. (2005). Who do they think ‘we’ is? Learners’ awareness of personality in pedagogic grammars. Language Awareness, 14(2-3), 84-96.

Biber, D., Gray, B., & Poonpon, K. (2011). Should we use characteristics of conversation to measure grammatical complexity in L2 writing development? TESOL Quarterly, 45(1), 5-35.


Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Biber, D., & Reppen, R. (2002). What does frequency have to do with grammar teaching? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24(2), 199-208.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London, UK: Longman.

Bigelow, M., & Ranney, S. (2010). Knowledge about language for teachers is more than knowing grammar rules. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 3(1), 217-228.
Bloor, T., & Bloor, M. (2013). The functional analysis of English (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Booij, G. (2012). The grammar of words: An introduction to linguistic morphology (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


Borg, S. (1998). Teachers’ pedagogical systems and grammar teaching: A qualitative study. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 9-35.

Borg, S. (1999). Studying teacher cognition in second language grammar teaching. System. 27(1), 19-31.

Borg, S. (1999). The use of grammatical terminology in the second language classroom: A qualitative study of teachers' practices and cognitions. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 95-126.

Borg, S. (1999). Teachers' theories in grammar teaching. English Language Teaching Journal. 53(3), 157-167.

Borg, S. (2001). Self-perception and practice in teaching grammar. ELT Journal, 55(1), 21-29.

Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in grammar teaching: A literature review. Language Awareness, 12(2), 96-108.

Borg, S., & Burns, A. (2008). Integrating grammar in adult TESOL classrooms. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 456-482.

Broady, E., & Dwyer, N. (2008). Bringing  the learner back into the process: Identifying learner strategies for grammatical development in independent language learning. In S. Hurd & T. Lewis (Eds.), Language learning strategies in independent settings (pp. 141-158). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.


Burgess, J., & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: Explicit or implicit? System30(4), 433-458.
Burton-Roberts, N. (1976). On the generic indefinite article.  Language, 52, 427-448.
Burns, A. (2003). Grammar as "poison" or "fishing"? Developing an Australian distance-learning course in systemic functional grammar. In D. Liu & P. Master (Eds.), Grammar teaching in teacher education (pp. 57-73). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Burns, A., & Borg, S. (2015). Integrating grammar in adult TESOL classrooms. In M. A. Christison, D. Christian, P. Duff, & N. Spada (Eds.), Teaching and learning English grammar:  Research findings and future directions (pp. 159-177). New York, NY: Routledge.

Byrd, P. (2005). Instructed grammar. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 545-561). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Byrd, P. and J. M. Reid (1998)  Grammar in the composition classroom: Essays on teaching ESL for college-bound students. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.


Candlin, C. N. (1979). The status of pedagogical grammars. In C. Brumfit & K. Johnson (Eds.), The communicative approach to language teaching (pp. 72-90). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Carter, R. A., & McCarthy, M. J. (1999). The English get passive in spoken discourse: description and implications for an interpersonal grammar. English Language and Linguistics, 3(1), 41-58.

Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English: A comprehensive guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Carter, R., McCarthy, M. J., Mark, G., & O’Keeffe, A. (2011). English grammar today. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Casagrande, J. (2008). Mortal syntax: 101 language choices that will get you clobbered by the grammar snobs – even if you’re right. New York, NY: Penguin.


Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Grammar pedagogy in second and foreign language teaching. TESOL Quarterly 25(3), 459-480.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2002). Why it makes sense to teach grammar in context and through discourse. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 119-133). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2015). An overview of teaching grammar in ELT. In M. A. Christison, D. Christian, P. Duff, & N. Spada (Eds.), Teaching and learning English grammar:  Research findings and future directions (pp. 3-18). New York, NY: Routledge.
Celce-Murcia, M., & Hilles, S. (1988). Techniques and resources in teaching grammar. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2002). Why it makes sense to teach grammar in context and through discourse. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 119-133). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teacher’s guide (2nd ed.). Florence, KY: Heinle & Heinle.

Celce-Murcia, M., & Larsen-Freeman, D. (1999). The grammar book: An ESL/EFL teachers’ course (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Cobbett, W. (1819). A grammar of the English Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


Coffin, C. (2010). Language support in EAL contexts. Why systemic functional linguistics? (Special Issue of NALDIC Quarterly). Reading, UK: NALDIC.

Coffin, C., Donohue, J., & North, S. (2009). Exploring English grammar: From formal to functional. London, UK: Routledge.


Coffin, C., Hewings, A., & O’Halloran, K. (2004). Applying English grammar: Functional and corpus approaches. London, UK: Hodder Arnold.
Coffin, C., & Donohue, J.P. (2012). Academic literacies and systemic functional linguistics: How do they relate? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11(1), 64-75.

Coffin, C., Donohue, J., & North, S. (2009). Exploring English grammar: From formal to functional. New York, NY: Routledge

Conrad, S. (2000). Will corpus linguistics revolutionize grammar teaching in the 21st century? TESOL Quarterly, 34(3), 548-560.

Corder, S. (1988). Pedagogic grammar. In W. Rutherford & M. Sharwood-Smith (Eds.), Grammar and second language teaching (pp. 123-145). New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.


Cowan, R. (2008). The teacher’s grammar of English with answers: A course book and reference guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cullen, R. (2012). Grammar instruction. In A. Burns & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to pedagogy and practice in second language teaching (pp. 258-266). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Daskalovska, N. (2013). How does reading affect reading comprehension, grammar and vocabulary knowledge? In T. Pattison (Ed.), IATEFL 2012: Glasgow Conference Selections (pp. 86-87). Canterbury, UK: IATEFL.
Davis, P., & Rinvolucri, M. (1995). More grammar games. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
De Capua, A. (2008). Grammar for teachers: A guide to American English for native and non-native speakers. Berlin, Germany: Springer.

DeCarrico, J. S. (2000). The structure of English: Studies in form and function for teaching English. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.


De Keyser, R. (1995). Learning second language grammar rules: An experiment with a miniature linguistics system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17(3), 379–410.
DeKeyser, R. (1998). Beyond focus on form: cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 42-63). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
DeKeyser, R. (2003). Implicit and explicit learning. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 313-348). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2005). What makes second-language grammar difficult? A review of issues. Language Learning, 55(1), 1-25.

Derewianka, B. (2007). Changing approaches to the conceptualization and teaching of grammar. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of English language teaching (pp. 843-858). New York, NY: Springer.

Derewianka, B. (2011). A new grammar companion for primary teachers. Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association Australia.

Dieterich, T. G., & Andler, A. L. (2001). English grammar: Structure and theme. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.


Doff, A. (2000). Teach English: A training course for teachers (14th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Doughty, C. (2001). Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 206-257). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Doughty, C., & Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus-on-form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus-on-form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114-138). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197-261). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Downing, A., & Locke, P. (2005). A university course in English grammar (2nd ed.). London, UK: Routledge.


Duff, P.A., Ferreira, A.A., & Zappa-Hollman, S. (2015). Putting (functional) grammar to work in content-based English for academic purposes instruction. In M. A. Christison, D. Christian, P. Duff, & N. Spada (Eds.), Teaching and learning English grammar:  Research findings and future directions (pp. 139-158). New York, NY: Routledge.
Duranti, A. (1994). From grammar to politics: Linguistic anthropology in a Western Samoan village. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Eisenstein, M. (1987) Grammatical explanations in ESL: Teach the student, not the method.  In M. Long & J. Richards (Eds.), Methodology in TESOL: a book of readings (pp. 282-292). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. 
Eisenstein-Ebsworth, M., & Schweers, C. W. (1997). What researchers say and practitioners do: Perspectives on conscious grammar instruction in the ESL classroom. Applied Language Learning, 8(2), 237-260.

Elgun-Gunduz, Z., Akcan, S., & Bayyurt, Y. (2012). Isolated form-focused instruction and integrated form-focused instruction in primary school English classrooms in Turkey. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 25(2), 157-171.


Ellis, N. C. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 305-352.
Ellis, R. (1991). Grammar teaching—practice or consciousness-raising. In R. Ellis (Ed.). Second language acquisition and second language pedagogy (pp. 232-241). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Ellis, R. (1993). Second language acquisition and the structural syllabus. TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), 91–113.
Ellis, R. (1994). A theory of instructed second language acquisition. In N. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 79-114). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Ellis, R. (1995). Interpretation tasks for grammar teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1), 87-105.

Ellis, R. (1998). Teaching and research: Options in grammar teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 39-60.   


Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form-focused instruction. Language Learning, 51(1), 1-46.

Ellis, R. (2002). Methodological options in grammar teaching materials.  In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.)  New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 155-179).  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 


Ellis, R. (2002). The place of grammar instruction in the second/foreign language curriculum. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 17-34). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ellis, R. (2002). Grammar teaching – practice or consciousness raising? In J.C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 167-174). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, R. (2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 83-107.

Ellis, R. (2012). A lifetime of grammar teaching. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 40 (1), 7-19.

Ellis, R. (2015). Form-focused approaches to learning, teaching, and researching grammar. In M. A. Christison, D. Christian, P. Duff, & N. Spada (Eds.), Teaching and learning English grammar:  Research findings and future directions (pp. 194-214). New York, NY: Routledge.
Fabb, N. (2005). Sentence structure. London, UK: Routledge.
Farley, A. P. (2004). Processing instruction and the Spanish subjunctive: Is explicit information needed? In B. VanPatten (Ed.), Processing instruction: Theory, research, and commentary (pp. 207-225). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Farley, A. P. (2004). Structured input: Grammar instruction for the acquisition-oriented classroom. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.


Farrell, T.S.C. (1999). The reflective assignment: Unlocking pre-service English teachers' beliefs on grammar teaching. RELC Journal, 30(2), 1-17.
Fernández, C. (2008). Re-examining the role of explicit information in processing instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(3), 277-305.
Ferris, D. R. (2004). The grammar correction debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?). Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(1), 49–62.
Ferris, D. R.  (1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996).  Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(1), 1-11.

Finnemann, M. D. (1992). Learning agreement in the noun phrase: The strategies of three first-year Spanish students. IRAL-International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 30(2), 121-136.


Florey, K. B. (2006). Sister Bernadette's barking dog: The quirky history and lost art of diagramming sentences. Hoboken, NJ: Melville House.
Folse, K.S. (2009). Keys to teaching grammar to English language learners: A practical handbook. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Folse, K.S. (2010). Clear Grammar 1 (2nd ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Folse, K.S. (2015). Creating corpus-based vocabulary lists for two verb tenses: A lexico- grammar approach. In M. A. Christison, D. Christian, P. Duff, & N. Spada (Eds.), Teaching and learning English grammar:  Research findings and future directions (pp. 119-138). New York, NY: Routledge.
Folse, K.S., and Brummett, K. (2006). Pedagogical grammar courses offered by MATESOL programs in Florida. Sunshine State TESOL Journal, 5(1), 1-2.
Fontaine, L. (2013). Analysing English grammar: A systemic-functional introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Fortune, A. (1992). Self-study grammar practice: Learners view and preferences. ELT Journal, 46(2), 350-355.


Fotos, S.S. (1993). Consciousness-raising and noticing through focus-on-form: Grammar task performance vs. formal instruction. Applied Linguistics, 14(4), 385–407.
Fotos, S.S. (1994). Integrating grammar instruction and communicative language use through grammar consciousness raising tasks. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 323-351.
Fotos, S. (2001). Cognitive approaches to grammar instruction. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.), (pp. 267-284). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
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