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English practice III by Robert Katz (Page ) unit 1


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UNIT 1

Vocabulary:


WHICH – Qué, cuál

CARRY (to) - Cargar, acarrear

EVER - Alguna vez, nunca

FLIGHT - Vuelo

PACKAGE - Paquete

SUITCASE - Maleta

HAIR - Cabello, pelo

PASSENGER - Pasajero

PLAYER – Jugador, ejecutante

VISIT - Visita

SPAGHETTI - Espageti

CUP - Taza

POT – Olla

COFFEE POT - Cafetera

BETWEEN - Entre dos cosas

FAR FROM - Lejos de

FRONT - Frente

NEXT TO – Junto a

EXIT - Salida

ANGRY - Enojado

LATE – Tarde, retardado

LARGE – Grande, extenso

ROUND – Redondo, vuelta

SQUARE - Cuadrado

MET – Pasado de MEET

PIE – Pay (pastel)

AGAIN - Otra vez

BEGINNING - Inicio, comienzo

BLOND - Rubio

DARK - Obscuro

GOAL - Meta, portería (futbol)

GROUND - Terreno, tierra

SHORTS – Pantaloncillos cortos

SOCK – Calcetín, calzeta



BRING (to) - Traer

BUILDING - Edificio

FLAG - Bandera

ON TOP OF – Arriba de

SEAT - Asiento

SWEATER – Suéter

BAGGAGE – Equipaje

ANYMORE - No más (en oración negativa)

ONCE – Una vez

A LITTLE - Un poco

FAT - Gordo(a)

HEAVY - Pesado

LIGHT – Ligero, luz

SHAPE – Forma, contorno



WANT (to) - Querer

ENERGY - Energía

HOMEWORK - Tarea escolar

RELAXATION – Descanso, relajación

POOL – Alberca, piscina

DURING - Durante

JOKE - Chiste, broma

CAFÉ - Café (restaurante)

UNIVERSITY - Universidad

EXERCISE (to) - Hacer ejercicio

DO THE DISHES (to) - Lavar los trastos

DISHES – Trastos, platillos

LEFT – Izquierdo(a)

OWN – Propio(a)

RELATIVE – Pariente, relativo

SOMETIMES – A veces

AT LEAST - Por lo menos

CUT (to) - Cortar

JUST – Solamente, justo

LAZY – Flojo(a)

SO - Tan


FEW - Pocos

GAS - Gasolina, gas

MOST – La mayoría

PARKING - Estacionamiento

PRACTICAL - Práctico

REPAIR (to) - Reparar

SUCH AS – Tal(es) como ...

TRAFFIC - Tráfico

WORRY (to) - Preocuparse

LEMONADE – Limonada, agua de limón

LETTUCE - Lechuga

TAIL – Cola

AWFUL - Terrible







PREPOSICIONES. Observe el significado de estas preposiciones:


UNDER

Debajo de

OVER

Sobre una superficie (sin hacer contacto con la misma)

ON

En (sobre una superficie haciendo contacto con la misma)

AT

En un lugar definido, y en las expresiones: A la mesa, Al escritorio

IN

En (dentro de un lugar)

IN FRONT OF

En frente de

IN BACK OF

Atrás de

“ “


BEHIND

NEAR

Cerca de

FAR FROM

Lejos de

BETWEEN

Entre (dos personas, animales o cosas)

NEXT TO

Junto a

AMONG

Entre (muchos)

El uso de ONE y ONES como sustitutos de sustantivos que ya se han mencionado anteriormente:


I see two boys, a short boy and a tall boy.

I see two boys, a short one and a tall one.

We have four reports, two long reports and two short reports.

We have four reports, two long ones, and two short ones.


El uso de ONE y ONES evita tener que repetir el sustantivo que se mencionó con anterioridad, y por lo tanta mejora el estilo; sin embargo, si no se desea utilizarlos, se pude repetir el sustantivo sin que ello signifique incurrir en un error.

El Tiempo COPRETERITO (Imperfect Tense) en inglés tiene el significado de SOLIA o ACOSTUMBRABA (hacer tal o cual cosa), y se forma con el pretérito del verbo USE seguido de un INFINITIVO. Ejemplos:





I used to swim

Yo solía (acostumbraba) nadar

You used to read

Tú solías (acostumbrabas) leer

He used to write

El solía (acostumbraba) escribir

She used to come

Ella solía (acostumbraba) venir

It used to work

(Ello) solía (acostumbraba) funcionar

We used to go

Nosotros solíamos (acostumbrabamos) ir

You used to see

Ustedes solían (acostumbraban) ver

They used to understand

Ellos solían (acostumbraban) entender

El Interrogativo y el Negativo se forma con DID y DIDN'T respectivamente debido a que el verbo esta en Tiempo Pasado. Ejemplo:




Afirmativo

She used to live in New York

Interrogativo

Did she use to live in New York?

Negativo

She didn't use to live in New York

Interrogativo-Negativo

Didn't she use to live in New York?

EL COPRETERITO EN INGLES SOLO se utiliza para indicar que una acción se ejecutaba en algún tiempo en el pasado y que se ha DESCONTINUADO por alguna razón en el presente.


DOS VERBOS JUNTOS: Cuando dos verbos se juntan el segundo toma la forma del infinitivo:
I want to go, He likes to swim, They have to study


Conversation 1:

BETH: Look! Here come the people from the plane, is that Gabby with them?

RALPH: Which one?

BETH: The fat one.

RALPH: The one with the small suitcase?

BETH: No, the one with the package.

RALPH: Yes, that’s Gabby.

BETH: Hello, Gabby. How was your trip?

GABBY: Awful! Two little children were sitting next to me.
Conversation 2:

LEE: What do you do for exercise?

JOHN: I go swimming once a week.

LEE: I used to swim in Junior High School but I don’t have time anymore.

JOHN: That’s too bad. Exercise is really important.

LEE: I know. I’m getting fat. I didn’t use to be this heavy.

JOHN: I’m going swimming tonight, do you want to go with me?

LEE: O.K. I really need to get in shape again.

Fill in the blanks with UNDER, OVER, AT, IN, ON, FAR FROM, NEAR, BETWEEN. NEXT TO, IN FRONT OF or AMONG:
1 The family is sitting _____ the table.

2 Tlaquepaque is _______ Guadalajara.

3 Mexico is __________ China.

4 The hotel is _________ the restaurant and the school.

5 A square is ___________ the Degollado Theatre.

6 The muffler is _______ the car.

7 The plates are _______ the table.

8 The coffee is _______ the cup.

9 The clouds are ________ the city.

10 We were ___________ many people.


Use ONE or ONES to fill in the blanks.
1 I see three boys, a tall _______, a short _______, and a fat _______.

2 Were you in a big party? No, I was in a small _______.

3 She wears long skirts and short _______.

4 We have rich friends and poor _______.



Answer the following questions using USED TO. Example:

What did you use to do in kindergarten?

I used to play all the time.


1 What time did you use to get up 10 years ago?

______________________________________

2 How much homework did you use to have in Elementary School?

______________________________________

3 What did your father use to like when he was young?

______________________________________

4 Who used to tell funny jokes in your family?

______________________________________

5 What did you use to drink when you were a baby?

______________________________________


Reading 1:
A TRIP TO KANSAS CITY

Rebecca is very excited about her trip to Kansas City. Her parents took her to the airport. She was going to visit her friends Estelle and Robert and their children in that city.

She was bringing them presents: she had sweaters for Estelle and Robert, a red one for her and a brown one for him; and four games, one for each child.

The presents were in a package under the seat in front of Rebecca. She was sitting in a seat next to the window. Finally she saw the US flag over the Kansas City International Airport. Which ones were her friends Estelle and Robert?


Reading 2:
TRAVELING BY TRAIN

Fifty years ago people in the United States often used to travel by train. Nowadays there are fewer trains and most people prefer to travel by car. Some people, however, still like to travel by train. They want to relax and don’t want to have to worry about gas, repairs, or parking.

Other people in large cities such as New York, Atlanta, Houston, etc. take the train to their jobs every day.

They prefer to travel by train because it is practical. Also, some of them enjoy riding the trains because they don’t like to drive in city traffic and they want to do some of their work on the train.



Test:


  1. El perro está debajo de la mesa y el vaso está sobre la mesa.

  2. El policía está junto al auto y el tren está atrás de la estación.

  3. Greg está sentado en frente de Max.

  4. (Yo) no voy a usar el abrigo negro. (Yo) voy a usar el blanco.

  5. Ella no va a comprar un auto chico. (ella) va a comprar una grande.

  6. Vimos tres muchachos. ¿Cuál era Max?

  7. Ustedes vieron dos películas. ¿Cuál les gusto?

  8. ¿Quién es Pamela? La chica que está entre la gente.

  9. El espagueti está en el plato, y la luz está sobre la mesa.

  10. El árbol está entre la tienda y la estación.

  11. Ellos solían esquiar todos los fines de semana.

  12. Mi hermano solía levantarse a las 6:00

  13. Solíamos tener vacaciones en verano.

  14. Su prima (de él) solía vivir en Los Angeles, California

  15. Ella no solía ser tan floja.

  16. ¿Solías tener mucha tarea en secundaria?

  17. ¿Juega golf tu padre? --- Sí (respuesta corta)

  18. ¿Solían ustedes leer novelas?

  19. El no tiene que estudiar pero quiere estudiar.

  20. ¿Tienen ellos una mascota? --- No (respuesta corta).

UNIT 2



SPEND (to) – Gastar (dinero), Pasar (tiempo)

CLOTHING - Ropa

FOUNTAIN - Fuente

HISTORICAL - Histórico

LAKE - Lago

PALACE - Palacio

ROLL - Rollo

STATUE - Estatua

CHEESE - Queso

POUND - Libra

CHALK - Gis

JAM – Mermelada, atascamiento

JAR - Frasco

LOAF – Barra de pan

LOAVES – Barras de pan

QUART – Cuarto de galón

CARTON - Caja de cartón

ENVELOPE - Sobre (para carta)

ASTRONAUT - Astronauta

VIDEO - Video

DANCE - Baile

SOFTBALL - Softbol

TOUR – Excursión, recorrido turístico

PLAN - Plan

PROFESSOR–Profesor universidad

SUCCESFUL - Exitoso

BUTTER - Mantequilla

CASH - Dinero en efectivo, efectivo

CASH MACHINE - Cajero automático

CUPBOARD – Alacena, vitrina

FRUIT – Fruta(s)

GROCERY - Abarrote

KIND - Clase

LIST - Lista

SHOPPING - Compras

MACHINE – Máquina

MAYBE – Tal vez

VEGETABLE – Legumbre, verdura

DEEP - Profundo

EMOTION - Emoción

BACK AND FORTH - De un lado a otro

REMAIN (to) - Permanecer

RETURN (to) - Regresar

RODEO - Rodeo

STILL – Aún, quieto, silencioso

STRONG – Fuerte





HOW MUCH siginfica Cuánto?, Cuánta? y se utiliza con sustantivos en SINGULAR.


HOW MANY significa Cuántos?, Cuántas? y se utiliza con sustantivos en PLURAL.

Combinaciones con la palabra THERE:




THERE IS significa HAY (en singular)

THERE IS a book.

THERE ARE significa HAY (en plural)

THERE ARE two books

THERE WAS significa HUBO, HABIA (en singular)

THERE WAS an accident

THERE WERE significa HUBO, HABIA (en plural)

THERE WERE many people here

THERE IS GOING TO BE significa VA A HABER (en singular)

THERE IS GOING TO BE a meeting today

THERE ARE GOING TO BE significa VA A HABER (en plural)

THERE ARE GOING TO BE good pictures on television tonight.

Para formar el Interrogativo y el Negativo, invertiremos el verbo con respecto al sujeto, en el primer caso, y agregaremos la palabra NOT, en el segundo. Ejemplos:




Afirmativo

There is a problem in the city.

Interrogativo

Is there a problem in the city?

Negativo

There isn't a problem in the city.

Interrogativo-Negativo

Isn't there a problem in the city?


Conversation:

LAURA: Penny, I’m going to spend two weeks in Cancún this summer.

PENNY: That’s wonderful.

LAURA: How many suitcases do I have to take?

PENNY: Take two: a big one and a medium size one..

LAURA: How much money do I need?

PENNY: A lot, about two thousand dollars.

LAURA: Are there many interesting places there?

PENNY: Yes, there are beautiful beaches and ruins to visit.
Fill in the blanks with either HOW MUCH or HOW MANY:
1 ________________ coffee do you need?

2 ________________ cups and glasses do you have?

3 ________________ milk does he drink?

4 ________________ pounds do you weigh?

5 ________________ jam do you eat?

6 ________________ loaves of bread did she buy yesterday?

7 ________________ ice cream are you going to get for the party?
Change to PAST and IDIOMATIC FUTURE as in the example:
There are many problems in the United States.

There were many problems in the United States.

There are going to be many problems in the United States.
1 There is a good photograph in the album.

___________________________________

___________________________________

2 There are crazy people in the world.

___________________________________

___________________________________

3 There is water in the lake.

___________________________________

___________________________________

4 There is a good movie on Sunday.

___________________________________

___________________________________

5 There are good airlines in Mexico.

___________________________________

___________________________________

Reading:
PLANNING TO BUY GROCERIES

Henry Fong has four children, so there are a lot of people at his dinner table. Henry is going to buy some groceries today. First, he checks his cupboard. How much bread does he need? How much butter? What kind of vegetables? Is there enough fruit?

Next, Henry makes a shopping list. He’s planning to buy two chickens, two heads of lettuce, four tomatoes and two loaves of bread. He’s also going to need two quarts of milk and a dozen eggs.

Then, he thinks about money. How much money does he need? Ten dollars, twenty, fifty? There isn’t a lot of money in his wallet. He’ll have to stop at the cash machine on his way to the supermarket.


Test:


  1. ¿Cuántas maletas tienes?

  2. ¿Cuánto dinero necesitas para este fin de semana?

  3. ¿Cuántas tazas de café hay en la mesa?

  4. ¿Cuántas latas de sopa necesitamos?

  5. ¿Hay vino en la botella? --- Sí (respuesta corta)

  6. ¿Había problemas en 1900? No (respuesta corta)

  7. ¿Va a haber un día de campo el sábado?

  8. ¿Había televisores hace 20 años? --- Sí (respuesta corta)

  9. ¿Va a haber una buena película esta noche?

  10. ¿Cuántos cuartos de galón de leche quieres?




UNIT 3

Vocabulary:



STRING – Cordel, cuerda

TIE (to) - Atar

WRAP (to) - Envolver

FIND (to) - Encontrar

SCISSORS - Tijeras

CLOSET - Closet, armario

GIFT - Regalo

INK - Tinta

KEY – Llave, tecla, clave

KNIFE – Cuchillo, navaja

LIGHT – Ligero, luz

CHARITY - Caridad

DRUMS - Tambores, batería

TALENT - Talento

JUICE – Jugo, agua fresca



ATTEND (to) - Asistir

BORROW (to) - Pedir prestado

FRESH - Fresco, del día



USE (to) - Usar

SMOKE (to) – Fumar, humear

TAKE-OFF - Despegue

STEREO - Estéreo

WORD-PROCESS (to) – Escribir en la computadora

IDEA - Idea

MAIL – Correo

BILL - Cuenta (restaurante)



BLOW (to) - Soplar

FINISHED - Terminado



RING (to) – Sonar, timbrar

WIND – Viento, aire

AUNT - Tía

FOREVER - Para siempre



INVITE (to) - Invitar

LIKE - Como



MATTER (to) - Importar

NIECE - Sobrina



STAY (to) – Permanecer, hospedarse

ADD UP (to) - Añadir, sumar

BAT – Murciélago, bat (baseball)

BEST - El mejor

BOARD - Tablero, tabla



COUNT (to) - Contar

EARN (to) – Ganar (un sueldo)

END - Final

LAP - Vuelta

LET (to) - Permitir

REPLACE (to) - Reemplazar

RULE - Regla



SPELL (to) - Deletrear

WORTH - Valor



CLIMB (to) - Escalar, trepar

COLLECT (to) - Coleccionar, cobrar

CORRECT - Correcto

CRIME - Crimen, criminalidad

CROWN - Corona

FILE - Archivo, lima

FIRE - Fuego, incendio



KNEEL (to) - Arrodillarse

RATE – Tarifa, tasa

WILL – Voluntad, testamento

BETTER - Mejor

CANDY - Dulces

RECORD – Disco, registro

ASPIRIN - Aspirina

PAGE – Página



PHONE (to) – Telefonear

SPECIALIST - Especialista

PRESIDENT - Presidente

GEOLOGY - Geología

HARBOR - Puerto

HILL - Colina

PLAIN - Sencillo

SOURDOUGH – Pan negro

HOME MADE - Casero

ROAST BEEF - Rosbif

EMPLOYEE - Empleado

APIECE - Por cada uno



COST (to) - Costar

FIELD - Campo

CAUSE - Causa

REASON - Razón

WHY – Por qué

UNIT - Unidad

LONELY - Solitario

LOTS OF – Mucho, muchísimo

RECENTLY - Recientemente

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